1. Quadripartite, axial structures are a common enough phenomenon beyond Bali/Indonesia, though not a universal feature of cyclically-organized music. Japanese Togaku melodies are composed in s similar sort of orderly progression, and supported, like Balinese ones, by a clearly phrased drum-and-gong substrate. See Robert Garfias, Music of a Thousand Autumns: The Togaku Style of Japanese Court Music (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975). Many cyclic rhythmic phrases in Central Africa exhibit a characteristic +1/-1 organization, in which the whole is axially segmented into a pair of rhythms, one of which is one pulse more than half the total length, and the other one pulse less. See Simha Arom, African Polyphony and Polyrhythm (??: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 246. For fuller discussion of Figure 1's concepts and their historical and social relevance, see Michael Tenzer, Gamelan Gong Kebyar: The Art of Twentieth Century Balinese Music (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000).

2. Detailed descriptions of instruments and playing techniques can be found in Tenzer, Gamelan Gong Kebyar, and Colin McPhee, Music in Bali: A Study in Form and Instrumental Organization (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1966).

3. Friedmann, Michael. "A Methodology for the Discussion of Contour: Its Application to Schoenberg's Music," Journal of Music Theory 29/2 (1985): 223-248.

4. For an interesting discussion of how such structures constitute a uniquely Southeast Asian approach to musical time, see Jose Maceda, "A Concept of Time in Southeast Asian Music," Ethnomusicology 30/1 (1986): 11-53.

5.For further information, see Tenzer, Gamelan Gong Kebyar, Chapters 5-6, and McPhee, Music in Bali, Chapters 9-12 and Appendix 4. 

End of Footnotes