1. Various portions of this paper had been presented at the following conferences: Society for Music Theory/"Musical Intersections" megaconference, Toronto (November, 2000), "Music Analysis and Popular Music" conference, University of Cardiff, Wales (November, 2001), and the Florida State University Forum (March 2002).
2. I have elsewhere had to discuss the approaches of other writers who hold the entire rock literature to be "monolithic," altogether the product of an unvarying application of harmonic principles; see Everett 2000, 303. Most investigations into the harmony of rock treat every chordal root as of equal value, set aside inverted chords as "rare" and thereafter ignore them, rely upon discredited concepts such as "retrogression," and leave unconsidered the ramifications of voice leading upon chord identity, function, embellishment and harmonic expansion. I will here cite Stephenson 2002 as perhaps the most developed of all such studies, for all its good points in other domains. It is my belief that a Schenkerian understanding of tonal relationships allows for a clearer hearing of the variations among rock's tonal approaches than what has been afforded by methods thus far appearing in other analyses.
3. I am grateful to the National Endowment for the Humanities for a Fellowship that allowed me a year of released time to pursue the study referred to above, undertaken in order to write a book on rock music for the general public. Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of the National Endowment for the Humanities.
4. It has been argued that "every early rock 'n' roll song is based on the twelve-bar blues form" (Hamm 1979, 396), but this leaves unconsidered a largely diatonic 16- and 32-bar doo-wop tradition just as important to very early rock and roll. And while the likes of Buddy Holly and the Everly Brothers did not achieve national prominence until a year after did Elvis Presley, the centrally diatonic nature of their south(west)ern and Appalachian folk-country styles was just as characteristic of Presley's repertoire as was the blues. Another of the earliest r&b/rock groups, The Platters, owes more by far to Jerome Kern ("Smoke Gets in Your Eyes") and to the major/minor tonal traits of Tin-Pan Alley than to the blues.
5. The Brahms vs. Howlin' Wolf characterization is made in Everett 2000, 303. The graph of "She's Always a Woman" is from my unpublished paper, "Musical Expression at Deep Structural Levels in Learned and Vernacular Vocal Repertoires," presented to the March 1993 joint meeting of the Society for Music Analysis and the Royal Musical Association, Southampton.
6. Middleton 1990, 193, is probably the most prominent and influential accusation in the rock-analytic world that Schenkerian analysis "ignores" rhythmic (as well as motivic) features. He cites Narmour 1977 as his source of understanding.
7. The Beatles analyses appear in Everett 2001, 226-29 and 322-23, respectively.
8. The "Julia" graph first appeared in Everett 1986, 383, the "Long and Winding Road" sketch in Everett 1999, 228. The statement as to "Strawberry Fields Forever" is from Everett 1986, 372.
9. Thanks to Jonathan Bernard for reminding me of the Who example in an exchange on the smt-list, c. 2002. I discuss the double-plagal cadence in some detail, with accompanying voice-leading graphs, in Everett 2000, 323-26.
10. The Phyrygian mode is extremely rare in rock music, but Robert Walser points out that "speed metal is usually Phrygian or Locrian" (Walser 1993, 46). The guitar work in Megadeth's "Psychotron" features a second scale degree a half-step above tonic that may be diatonic, rather than a chromatic passing tone, and the guitars in their "Ashes In Your Mouth" feature second and fifth scale degrees that sound Locrian. The overall effect of these numbers, however, especially with their power-chord vocabulary, their lack of harmonic function, and their fully minor-pentatonic vocal parts, would seem to situate these examples in Type 6a, discussed below.
11. Several of these expressive reasons for employing the truck-driver's modulation are given in Everett 1997, 151, nn. 17-18. The term "pump-up" modulation has been proposed for the same technique, as part of a deep investigation into the effect, in Ricci 2000, 130-33.
12. The graph in Figure 10 first appeared in Everett 1997, 124-25.
13. The blues scale is basic to the tonal nature of the blues, and so of blues-based rock, in the understanding of many researchers; see, for instance, Van der Merwe 1989, 118-29. Nowhere have I seen a reliance on the major mode (with melodic inflection based on minor-pentatonic embellishment), as I propose here.
14. The modal inflections in these three songs are discussed in Everett 2000, 329, 329-30, and 284-86, respectively. Haley's 1954 hit, "Dim, Dim the Lights (I Want Some Atmosphere)," contrasts major and pentatonic-minor modes in its melody so as to represent light and dark to suggestive ends just as does his later "Rock Around the Clock."
15. This concept has apparently been explored previously by Alf Björnberg in an unpublished 1985 presentation to IASPM in Montreal entitled, "On Aeolian Harmony in Contemporary Popular Music"; this work is cited in Middleton 1990, 198.
16. Figure 17 appeared first in Everett 2002, 33.
17. Thanks to Guy Capuzzo for suggesting to me the possible role of parsimonious voice leading in this example in a February, 2001, conversation.
18. Figure 20 appeared first in Everett 2000, 334.
19. I am grateful to Jonathan Pieslak for introducing me to the tonal world of KoRn.
20. It might be interesting to study the relationships among any, or many, other such samples from throughout rock history, but I leave this simply as a suggestion.
21. See Krebs 1981 and 1985.
22. See Neumeyer 1987, Schachter 1994, and Forte 1995.
23.For the fourteen number-one albums, the voice-leading mean (26.1) and standard deviation (12.8), and the harmony mean (30.5) and standard deviation (15.8), are just slightly more outlandish in nearly every regard than are the corresponding numbers for the 1999-2000 population as a whole (mean and standard deviation respectively: 29.4 and 11.4 for voice leading, 32.9 and 13.0 for harmony), but not significantly so, given our indeterminate margin of error in scoring.
24. OLGA is found at http://www.olga.net/dynamic/search.php?search=.
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