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Polak and London, Timing and Meter in Mande Drumming

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Figure 2.1. Screenshot of four-track audio of one randomly chosen four-beat cycle containing twelve subdivision elements

Vertical orange-color markers define the onsets of the drum strokes of the bottom track (in blue), which represents the accompaniment part; IOIs between markers are given in milliseconds. A significant non-alignment in the lead drum is circled in red; a flam is circled in black