Crosslinguistic Variability and Generalization
4.1. Premise and Paraphrase.
4.2. The Replication of Patterning.
[4.1.1] “Languages are acknowledged to vary in wide-ranging ways. The cross-linguistic generalizations that do exist are explained by domain-general cognitive processes or by the functions of the constructions involved (Croft 2001, Haspelmath 2008, Evans and Levinson 2009, Boas 2010)” (Goldberg 2013, 15–16).
[4.1.2] Construction grammarians reject the notion of an innate Universal Grammar and the idea that it explains the commonalities between languages. Instead, the commonalities are viewed as a result of similarities in social structures, in our physical beings, and in our interactions with the environment. In studies of music analysis these issues hardly arise, given what until recently has been the strong Eurocentric assumptions of the prevailing methods. Because schema theory in music makes few if any assumptions about the nature of musical patterns, it is not limited to music in any one particular style.
The Replication of Patterning
[4.2.1] We follow Leonard B. Meyer in relating musical style to a “replication of patterning, whether in human behavior or in the artifacts produced by human behavior, that results from a series of choices made within some set of constraints” (1989, 3). Such replications of patterning can be found in Mozart, to be sure, but also in Indian ragas, Balinese gong kebyar, the Persian radif, and folk or popular musics the world over. Meyer's choice of terminology reflects his longstanding focus on domain-general cognitive functions—Gestalt principles, expectation, closure, similarity, association—shared by listeners in any culture or era.
[4.2.2] Preferential replication creates differences in how frequently a given pattern is perceived to occur, which in turn creates opportunities for statistical learning. To understand which patterns listeners are most likely to have learned, researchers can turn to corpus studies (discussed further in the section on Usage-Based Knowledge). To understand if listeners in different cultures hear musical patterns in the same way we would need extensive crosscultural studies in music cognition. Only a few such studies have been carried out (e.g., Curtis and Bharucha 2009), so most questions about crosscultural music abilities remain unanswered. "World music analysis," as a subfield of music theory, is only in its infancy (the online journal Analytical Approaches to World Music at aawmjournal.com is a promising development). And although the analysis of ethnic musics has always been a concern of ethnomusicology, broadly comparative work has been rare since the 1970s. Given the paucity of supporting data, it is hardly surprising that many estimates of musical universals are little more than inventories of the basic pre-cognitive abilities of the human auditory system (e.g., Dowling and Harwood 1986; Rahn 1983). Thus we view "cross-musical variability and generalization" as an area ripe for cooperative international research.
Abbot-Smith, Kirsten, and Michael Tomasello. 2006. “Exemplar-learning and Schematization in a Usage-based Account of Syntactic Acquisition.” The Linguistic Review 23/3: 275–290.
Abbot-Smith, Kirsten, Miriam Dittmar, and Michael Tomasello. 2007. “Graded Representations in the Acquisition of English and German Transitive Constructions.” Cognitive Development 23: 48–66.
Alishahi, Afra, and Suzanne Stevenson. 2008. “A Computational Model of Early Argument Structure Acquisition.” Cognitive Science 32: 789–834.
Allanbrook, Wye J. 2002. “Theorizing the Comic Surface.” In Music in the Mirror: Reflections on the History of Music Theory and Literature for the 21st Century, ed. Andreas Giger and Thomas Mathiesen, 195-216. University of Nebraska Press.
Amadeus. 1984. Directed by Milos Forman. The Saul Zaentz Company, 1997, DVD.
Arensky, Anton Stepanovich.  1929. Sbornik zadach (1000) dlja prakticheskogo izucheniia garmonii (A Collection of 1000 Lessons for the Practical Study of Harmony). Repr. Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel’stvo-Muzykal’nyi Sektor.
Babbitt, Milton. 1965. “The Structure and Function of Musical Theory: 1.” College Music Symposium 5: 49–60.
Bamberger, Jeanne. 1995. The Mind behind the Musical Ear: How Children Develop Musical Intelligence. Harvard University Press.
Baldwin, Dare, Annika Andersson, Jenny Saffran, and Meredith Meyer. 2008. “Segmenting Dynamic Human Action via Statistical Structure.” Cognition 106/3: 1382–1407.
Barlow, Michael, and Suzanne Kemmer, eds. 2000. Usage-Based Models of Language. CSLI Publications.
Bazin, François-Emmanuel-Victor. 1857. Cours d’harmonie théorique et pratique. Escudier.
Blasius, Leslie. 1996. Schenker’s Argument and the Claims of Music Theory. Cambridge University Press.
Boas, Hans, ed. 2010. Contrastive Studies in Construction Grammar. John Benjamins.
Boykan, Martin. 2004. Silence and Slow Time: Studies in Musical Narrative. Scarecrow Press.
Brown, Matthew. 2005. Explaining Tonality: Schenkerian Theory and Beyond. University of Rochester Press.
Brugman, Claudia. 1988. The Story of Over: Polysemy, Semantics, and the Structure of the Lexicon. Garland.
Bybee, Joan. 1985. Morphology: A Study into the Relation between Meaning and Form. John Benjamins.
Bybee, Joan. 2006. “From Usage to Grammar: The Mind’s Response to Repetition.” Language 82/4: 711–733.
Bybee, Joan. 2010. Language, Usage, and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bybee, Joan. 2013. “Usage-Based Theory and Exemplar Representations of Constructions.” In Oxford Handbook of Construction Grammar, eds. Thomas Hoffman and Graeme Trousdale, 49–69. Oxford University Press.
Bybee, Joan, and David Eddington. 2006. “A Usage-Based Approach to the Spanish Verbs of ‘Becoming.’” Language 82/2: 323–355.
Byros, Vasili. 2012a. “Meyer’s Anvil: Revisiting the Schema Concept.” Music Analysis 31/3: 273–346.
Byros, Vasili. 2012b. “Unearthing the Past: Theory and Archeology in Robert Gjerdingen’s Music in the Galant Style.” Music Analysis 31/1: 112–124.
Chanan, Michael. 1994. Musica Practica: The Social Practice of Western Music from Gregorian Chant to Postmodernism. Verso.
Charlton, David. 2012. Opera in the Age of Rousseau: Music, Confrontation, Realism. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Cherubini, Luigi. 1827. Pour le concours // d’harmonie et d’accompagnement // pratique // année 1827 (manuscrit autographe). MS-1693 (3). Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Musique.
Chomsky, Noam. 1957. Syntactic Structures. s-Gravenhage.
Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. The MIT Press.
Chomsky, Noam. 1966. Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought. Harper & Row.
Chomsky, Noam. 1993. “A Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory.” In Kenneth Hale and Samuel Jay Keyser, eds., The View from Building 20. MIT Press, 1–52.
Choron, Alexandre-Etienne. 1804. Principes d’accompagnement des écoles d’Italie. Imbault.
Croft, William. 2001. Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective. Oxford University Press.
Croft, William and D. Alan Cruse. 2004. Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge University Press.
Culicover, Peter, and Ray Jackendoff. 2005. Simpler Syntax. Oxford University Press.
Curtis, M. E., and J. J. Bharucha. 2009. "Memory and Musical Expectation for Tones in Cultural Context." Music Perception, 26, 365–375.
Dowling, W. Jay, and Dane Harwood. 1986. Music Cognition. Academic Press.
Durand, Émile. 1884. Traité d’accompagnement au piano de la basse chiffrée, du chant donné et de la partition d’orchestre. Leduc.
Erman, Britt, and Beatrice Warren. 2000. “The Idiom Principle and the Open Choice Principle.” Text 20: 29–62.
Evans, Nicholas, and Stephen Levinson. 2009. “The Myth of Language Universals: Language Diversity and its Importance for Cognitive Science.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32/5: 429–448.
Fedorenko, Evelina, Aniruddh Patel, Daniel Casasanto, Jonathan Winawer, and Edward Gibson. 2009. “Structural Integration in Language and Music: Evidence for a Shared System.” Memory & Cognition 37: 1–9.
Fillmore, Charles. 1977. “Topics in Lexical Semantics.” In Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, ed. Roger Cole, 76–138. Indiana University Press.
Forrest Gump. 1994. Directed by Robert Zemeckis. Paramount Pictures, 2001, DVD.
Förster, Emanuel Aloys. ca. 1818. Practische Beyspiele als Fortsetzung zu seiner Anleitung des Generalbasses. Artaria.
Frye, Northrop. 1957. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton University Press.
Ghostbusters. 1984. Directed by Ivan Reitman. Columbia Pictures, 2006, DVD.
Givón, Talmy. 2001. Syntax: An Introduction. 2 vols. John Benjamins Publishing.
Gjerdingen, Robert. 1984. “A Musical Schema: Structure and Style Change, 1720–1900.” Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania.
Gjerdingen, Robert. 1988. A Classic Turn of Phrase: Music and the Psychology of Convention. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Gjerdingen, Robert. 2007a. Music in the Galant Style: Being an Essay on Various Schemata Characteristic of Eighteenth-Century Music for Courtly Chambers, Chapel, and Theaters, Including Tasteful Passages of Music Drawn from Most Excellent Chapel Masters in the Employ of Noble and Noteworthy Personages, Said Music All Collected for the Reader’s Delectations on the World Wide Web. Oxford University Press.
Gjerdingen, Robert. 2007b. “Partimento, Que Me Veux-Tu?” Journal of Music Theory 51/1: 85–136.
Gjerdingen, Robert. 2011. “Gebrauchs-Formulas.” Music Theory Spectrum 33: 191–199.
Gjerdingen, Robert. 2014. “‘Historically Informed’ Corpus Studies.” Music Perception 31/3: 192–204.
Goldberg, Adele. 1995. Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. University of Chicago Press.
Goldberg, Adele. 2002. “Surface Generalizations: An Alternative to Alternations.” Cognitive Linguistics 13/4: 327–356.
Goldberg, Adele. 2006. Constructions at Work: The Nature of Generalization in Language. Oxford University Press.
Goldberg, Adele. 2013. “Constructionist Approaches.” In Oxford Handbook of Construction Grammar, ed. Thomas Hoffman and Graeme Trousdale, 15–31. Oxford University Press.
Gries, Stefan, and Anatol Stefanowitsch. 2004. “Extending Collostructional Analysis: A Corpus-Based Perspective on ‘Alternations.’” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 9/1: 97–129.
Grossberg, Stephen. 1980. “How Does a Brain Build a Cognitive Code?” Psychological Review 87/1: 1–51.
Haiman, John, ed. 1985. Iconicity in Syntax: Proceedings of a Symposium on Iconicity in Syntax, Stanford, June 24–6, 1983. John Benjamins Publishing.
Haspelmath, Martin. 2008. “Parametric versus Functional Explanations of Syntactic Universals.” In The Limits of Syntactic Variation, ed. Theresa Biberauer. Benjamins, 75–107.
Hatten, Robert. 1994. Musical Meaning in Beethoven: Markedness, Correlation, and Interpretation. Indiana University Press.
Heine, Bernd. 1992. “Grammaticalization Chains.” Studies in Language 16/2: 335–368.
Heine, Lena. 2011. “Non-coordinated-based Ellipsis from a Construction Grammar Perspective: The Case of the Coffee Construction.” Cognitive Linguistics 22 (1): 55–80.
Hoffman, Thomas, and Graeme Trousdale. 2013. “Construction Grammar: Introduction.” In Oxford Handbook of Construction Grammar, ed. Thomas Hoffman and Graeme Trousdale, 1–14. Oxford University Press.
Hopper, Paul. 1987. “Emergent Grammar.” Berkeley Linguistics Society 13: 139–157.
Ibbotson, Paul, Anna Theakston, Elena Lieven, and Michael Tomasello. 2012. “Semantics of the Transitive Construction: Prototype Effects and Developmental Comparisons.” Cognitive Science 36/7: 1268–1288.
Jackendoff, Ray. 2009. “Parallels and Nonparallels between Language and Music.” Music Perception 26/3: 195–204.
Johnson, M. A., and Adele Goldberg. 2013. "Evidence for Automatic Accessing of Constructional Meaning: Jabberwocky Sentences Prime Associated Verbs." Language and Cognitive Processes 2013: 1439–1452.
Kay, Paul, and Charles Fillmore. 1999. “Grammatical Constructions and Linguistics Generalizations: The What’s X Doing Y? Construction.” Language 75/1: 1–33.
Keiler, Alan. 1978. “Bernstein’s The Unanswered Question and the Problem of Musical Competence.” Musical Quarterly 64/2: 195–222.
Lakoff, George. 1987. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. University of Chicago Press.
Langacker, Ronald. 1987. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Vol. 1. Stanford University Press.
Langacker, Ronald. 1988. “A Usage-Based Model.” In Topics in Cognitive Linguistics, ed. Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn, 127–164. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Larson, Steve. 1998. “Schenkerian Analysis of Modern Jazz: Questions about Method.” Music Theory Spectrum 20/2: 209–241.
Latilla, Gaetano. 1737. Gismondo. Naples. Revised as La finta cameriera, Rome, spring 1738.
Lerdahl, Fred. 2009. “Genesis and Architecture of the GTTM Project.” Music Perception 26/3: 187–194.
Lerdahl, Fred, and Ray Jackendoff. 1983. A Generative Theory of Tonal Music. MIT Press.
Leo, Leonardo. ca. 1740s. Partimento in C major (Gj1766) in Partimenti di Porpora, MS, Milan Conservatory Library.
Levesque, P., and L. Bèche. 1772. Solfèges d’Italie avec la basse chiffrée. Paris.
Levinson, Jerrold. 1997. Music in the Moment. Cornell University Press.
Lieven, Elena, Heike Behrens, Jennifer Speares, and Michael Tomasello. 2003. “Early Syntactic Creativity: A Usage-Based Approach.” Journal of Child Language 30/2: 333–370.
Loui, Psyche, David Wessel, and Carla Hudson Kam. 2010. “Humans Rapidly Learn Grammatical Structure in a New Musical Scale.” Music Perception 27/5: 377–388.
Masci, Michael J. 2013. “Theory as Practica: The Theoretical study of Tonality and the Practical Study of Harmony in French Harmonie Pratique.” Theoria: Historical Aspects of Music Theory 20: 5–38.
Martini, Giovanni Battista. 1774, 1776. Esemplare, o sia Saggio fondamentale pratico di contrappunto sopra il canto fermo. 2 vols. Bologna.
Mattheson, Johann. 1719. Exemplarische Organisten-Probe. . . . Hamburg.
McCreless, Patrick. 2006. “Anatomy of a Gesture: From Davidovsky to Chopin and Back.” In Approaches to Meaning in Music, ed. Byron Almén and Edward Pearsall, 11–40. Indiana University Press.
McIntosh, Colin, Ben Francis, and Richard Poole, eds. 2009. Oxford Collocations Dictionary: For Students of English. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press.
Medin, Douglas, and Marguerite Schaffer. 1978. “Context Theory of Classification Learning.” Psychological Review 85: 207–238.
Meyer, Leonard. 1956. Emotion and Meaning in Music. University of Chicago Press.
Meyer, Leonard. 1980. “Exploiting Limits: Creation, Archetypes and Style Change.” Daedalus 109/2: 177–205.
Meyer, Leonard. 1989. Style and Music: Theory, History, and Ideology. University of Chicago Press.
Meyer, Leonard. 1991. “A Pride of Prejudices; or, Delight in Diversity.” Music Theory Spectrum 13/2: 241–51.
Narmour, Eugene. 1977. Beyond Schenkerism: The Need for Alternatives in Music Analysis. University of Chicago Press.
Narmour, Eugene. 1984. “Some Major Theoretical Problems Concerning the Concept of Hierarchy in the Analysis of Tonal Music.”Music Perception 1: 129–199.
Narmour, Eugene. 1990. The Analysis and Cognition of Basic Melodic Structures: The Implication-Realization Model. University of Chicago Press.
Narmour, Eugene. 1992. The Analysis and Cognition of Melodic Complexity: The Implication-Realization Model. University of Chicago Press.
Nosofsky, Robert. 1988. “Similarity, Frequency, and Category Representation.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 14: 54–65.
Patel, Aniruddh. 2008. Music, Language, and the Brain. Oxford University Press.
Patel, Aniruddh. 2012. “Language, Music, and The Brain: A Resource-Sharing Framework.” In Language and Music as Cognitive Systems, ed. Patrick Rebuschat, Martin Rohrmeier, John Hawkins, and Ian Cross, 204–223. Oxford University Press.
Pearsall, Edward. 1996. “Multiple Hierarchies: Another Perspective on Prolongation.” Indiana Theory Review 17: 37–66.
Piston, Walter. 1941. Harmony. Norton.
Piston, Walter. 1957. “Thoughts on the chordal concept.” In Essays on Music in Honor of Archibald Thompson Davison, ed. Randall Thompson, 273–278. Harvard University, Department of Music.
Poland, William. 1987. “The Perception of Sound as Music.” Psychomusicology 7/1: 63–70.
Powers, Harold. 1980. ”Language Models and Musical Analysis.“ Ethnomusicology 24: 1–60.
Rabinovitch, Gilad. Forthcoming. “‘Schenker the Galant?’ Tacit Knowledge, Contradiction, and Complementation in the Interaction between Gjerdingen’s Theory of Galant Schemata and Schenkerian Analysis.” Ph.D. Thesis. University of Rochester, Eastman School of Music.
Rahn, Jay. 1983. A Theory for All Music: Problems and Solutions in the Analysis of Non-Western Forms. University of Toronto Press.
Ratner, Leonard. 1970. “Ars Combinatoria: Chance and Choice in Eighteenth-Century Music.” In Studies in Eighteenth-Century Music: A Tribute to Karl Geiringer, ed. H. C. Robbins Landon and Roger Chapman, 343–363. Da Capo Press.
Riepel, Joseph. 1752. Anfangsgründe zur musicalischen Setzkunst, vol. 1, De rhythmopoeia, oder Von der Tactordnung. Regensburg and Vienna.
van Riesemann, Oskar. 1934. Rachmaninoff’s Recollections, told to Oskar von Riesemann. The Macmillan Company.
Rosch, Eleanor. 1973. “Natural Categories.” Cognitive Psychology 4: 328–350.
Rosch, Eleanor, and Carolyn Mervis. 1975. “Family Resemblances: Studies in the Internal Structure of Categories.” Cognitive Psychology 7: 573–605.
Ross, Brian, and Valerie Makin. 1999. “Prototype versus Exemplar Models.” In The Nature of Cognition, ed. Robert Sternberg, 205–241. MIT Books.
Saffran, Jenny, Richard Aslin, and Elissa Newport. 1996. “Statistical Learning by 8-Month-Old Infants.” Science 274/5294: 1926–1928.
Saffran, Jenny. 2003. “Statistical Language Learning: Mechanisms and Constraints.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 12/4: 110–114.
Sanguinetti, Giorgio. 2012. The Art of Partimento: History, Theory, and Practice. Oxford University Press.
Saussure, Ferdinand de. 1916 (Eng. trans. 1983). Course in General Linguistics. Ed. Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye. Trans. Roy Harris. Open Court.
Schenker, Heinrich. 1935. Neue musikalische Theorien und Phantasien. Bd. 3.: Der freie Satz. Universal-Edition.
Schonberg, Harold. 1991. Lives of the Great Composers. 2d rev. Abacus.
Sinclair, John. 1991. Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford University Press.
Sloboda, John. 1985. The Musical Mind: The Cognitive Psychology of Music. Oxford University Press.
Sparshott, Francis. 1994. “Aesthetics of Music: Limits and Grounds.” In What Is Music? An Introduction to the Philosophy of Music, ed. Philip Alperson, 33–100. Pennsylvania State University Press.
Swain, Joseph. 1995. “The Concept of Musical Syntax.” Musical Quarterly 79 (2): 281–308.
Talmy, Leonard. 2000. Toward a Cognitive Semantics. 2 vols. The MIT Press.
Tan, Sui-Lan, Peter Pfordresher, and Rom Harré. 2010. Psychology of Music: From Sound to Significance. Psychology Press.
Taruskin, Richard. 2011. “Catching Up with Rimsky-Korsakov.” Music Theory Spectrum 33: 169–85.
Taylor, John. 1995. Linguistic Categorization: Prototypes in Linguistic Theory. Clarendon Press.
Temperley, David, and Leigh VanHandel, eds. 2013. “Corpus Methods.” Special issue, Music Perception 31/1.
Tomasello, Michael. 2003. Constructing a Language: A Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition. Harvard University Press.
VanHandel, Leigh, and David Temperley, eds. 2014. “Corpus Methods.” Special issue, Music Perception 31/3.
Verhagen, Arie. 2002. “From Parts to Wholes and Back Again.” Cognitive Linguistics 13: 403–439.
Wee, Lionel, and Ying Ying Tan. 2008. “That’s so Last Year! Constructions in a Socio-Cultural Context.” Journal of Pragmatics 40: 2100–2113.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1953. Philosophical Investigations. Blackwell.