2. Shreffler's expansive interpretation of modernism has ample support, but many scholars discern a sea change warranting the "post" prefix. Postmodernism emphasizes certain contradictions within modernism that are manifested here. Compare Arnold Whittall, "Modernist Aesthetics, Modernist Music: Some Analytic Perspectives," Music Theory in Concept and Practice, ed. Baker, Beach, and Bernard (Rochester: Rochester University Press, 1997): 157-80, and Jonathan D. Kramer, "Beyond Unity: Toward an Understanding of Musical Postmodernism," Concert Music, Rock, and Jazz since 1945, ed. Marvin and Hermann (Rochester: Rochester University Press, 1995): 11-33, which notably distinguishes Webern from postmodern tendencies.
3. Soren Kierkegaard, Concluding Unscientific Postscript, ed. and trans. Hong and Hong (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992): 203. Even Herbert Eimert, editor of Darmstadt's die Riehe, for instance, embraced Webern's "scanty, undecorated, unrhetorical lyricism.""A Change of Focus," die Riehe: Anton Webern 2 (1955): 29-36. Christopher Wintle, "Webern's Lyric Character," Bailey, ed. Webern Studies: 229-63, underscores the problem by concluding in exasperation, "how curious that, fifty years [later], we have still to get the measure of Webern's lyric character!"
4. Kathryn Bailey, The Twelve-Note Music of Anton Webern (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
5. Other Webern sketch studies include Wayne Alpern, "Aggregation, Assassination, and an 'Act of God': The Impact of the Murder of Archduke Ferdinand Upon Webern's Op. 7 No. 3," Theory and Practice 21 (1996): 1 28; Felix Meyer and Anne Shreffler, "Webern's Revisions: Some Analytic Implications," Music Analysis 12.3 (1993) 355-79, and "Performance and Revision: The Early History of Webern's Four Pieces for Violin and Piano, Op. 7," Bailey, ed., Webern Studies: 135-69; and Allen Forte, "A Major Webern Revision and Its Implications for Analysis," Perspectives of New Music 28.1 (1990): 224-53.
6. Lockwood summarizes the sketch debate in "The Beethoven Sketchbooks and the General State of Sketch Research," Beethoven's Compositional Process, ed. William Kinderman (Lincoln: Nebraska University Press, 1991): 6-13.
7. The traditional view is expressed by Robert Marshall's "basic article of faith [that] the final reading is superior to the rejected reading," The Music of Johann Sebastian Bach: the Sources, the Style, the Significance (New York: Schirmer Books, 1989): 145.
8. A similar conspicuous dearth of precompositional sketches in Schoenberg's atonal music is noted in Ethan Haimo, "Atonality, Analysis, and the Intentional Fallacy," Music Theory Spectrum 18.2 (fall, 1996): 167-99, and also in Bartok's music in Laszlo Somfai, Bela Bartok: Composition, Concepts, and Autograph Sources (Berkeley: California University Press, 1996): 81-82.
9. Shreffler thereby links this study with her previous research showing that Webern's first serial effort in op. 15/4 emerged directly out of a vocal line. "'Mein Weg geht jetzt vorueber": The Vocal Origins of Webern's Twelve Tone Composition," Journal of the American Musicological Society 47 (1994): 275-338.
10. For purposes of clarity, directed intervals (+ and -) instead of conventionally uniformly ascending intervals are used to denote pitch class intervals, not pitch intervals, i.e., -5 = 7. The prime forms of these three sets are 5-4 (01236), 5-7 (01237), and 5-10 (01346)
11. David Lewin discusses progressive and partial transformations in a different context in Generalized Musical Intervals and Transformations (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987): 125-28, 141-43. Joseph Straus explores near transformations in "Voice Leading in Atonal Music," Baker, Music Theory in Concept: 237-74. Ian Quinn, "Fuzzy Extensions to the Theory of Contour," Music Theory Spectrum 19.2 (fall, 1997): 232-63, offers a "Fuzzy Tutorial" to analyze "slight alterations" in Steve Reich's music.
12. P3RI would retrograde the previous output, this time inverting just its first, second, and fourth intervals to generate <-1+3+1+5>. P4RI would in turn retrograde that, finally inverting all its intervals, just like a conventionally crisp RI equivalency relationship to generate <-5-1-3+1>. In conventional pci notation, P1RI <7-11-3-11> = <11-3-11-5>, P2RI <11 3-11-5> = <7-11-3-1>, P3RI <7-11-3-1> = <11-3-1-5>, P4RI <11-3-1-5> = <7-11-9-1>.
13. Shreffler's central theme of "multiple reference" acknowledges affinity with Arnold Whittall's "multiple meaning" in "Webern and Multiple Meaning," Music Analysis 6 (1987): 333-53, which in turn cites Schoenberg's "multiple harmonic meaning" in Structural Functions of Harmony (New York: W.W. Norton, 1969): 168. See also Janna Saslaw and James Walsh, "Musical Invariance as a Cognitive Structure: 'Multiple Meaning' in the Early Nineteenth Century," Music Theory in the Age of Romanticism, ed. Ian Bent (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996): 211-32.
14. Stravinsky's and Bartok's sketches also were often simpler, classical prototypes or "Urforms" transformed to become increasingly free and remote from their normative structural origins. Joseph Straus, "The Progress of a Motive in Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress," The Journal of Musicology 9 (1991):166-85; Somfai, Bartok: 155-58.
15. Morton Feldman, "Crippled Symmetry," Essays (Kerpen: Beginner Press, 1985): 124-37; Jacques Derrida, "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences," A Postmodernist Reader, ed. Natoli and Hutcheon (Albany: SUNY Press, 1993): 223-42.
16. Several recent studies invoke ambiguity as an analytic approach. Morris posits "degrees of relatedness by deviation" in Webern's music in "Conflict and Anomaly in Bartok and Webern," Musical Transformation and Musical Intuition: Essays in Honor of David Lewin, ed. Atlas and Cherlin (Roxbury: Ovenbird Press, 1994): 59-79; Lewin explores a "disoriented, out-of-focus" passage in "Some Notes on Pierrot Lunaire," Baker, Music Theory in Concept: 433-57; Philip Lambert posits a "scrambling" technique in parsing "tenuous musical connections" in The Music of Charles Ives (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997): 94-100; Robert Morgan discerns "tonal uncertainty" in "Chasing the Scent: The Tonality of Liszt's Blume und Duft," Baker, Music Theory in Concept: 361-76; Joseph Swain presents a "syntactically anomalous" Beethovenian motive in Musical Languages (New York: W.W. Norton, 1997): 74-77. Kofi Agawu sounds a cogent dissent in "Ambiguity in Tonal Music: A Preliminary Study," Pople, Meaning in Music: 86-107.
17. Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Themes and Episodes (New York: Knopf, 1966): 43.
18. Anton Webern, The Path to the New Music, trans. Leo Black (Byrn Mawr: Theo. Presser, 1963): passim.
19. Leo Treitler, "Music Analysis in a Historical Context," Music and the Historical Imagination (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989): 69; Claude Levi Strauss, The Raw and the Cooked quoted in Moldenhauer, ed. Webern Perspectives: xix.
20. Karlheinz Stockhausen, "For the 15th of September 1955," trans. Leo Black, die Riehe: Webern: 37-39.
End of Footnotes