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       M U S I C          T H E O R Y         O N L I N E
                     A Publication of the
                   Society for Music Theory
          Copyright (c) 1993 Society for Music Theory
| Volume 0, Number 4      September, 1993      ISSN:  1067-3040 |
  All queries to: mto-editor@husc.harvard.edu
Files: mto.93.0.4.mcnamee.art


AUTHOR: McNamee, Ann K.
TITLE: Grazyna Bacewicz's Second Piano Sonata (1953): Octave
       Expansion and Sonata Form
KEYWORDS: linear analysis, 20th-century sonata forms, Polish folk music
Ann K. McNamee
Swarthmore College
Swarthmore, PA 19081
ABSTRACT: If Grazyna Bacewicz's music is so "conservative" and
"neoclassical," why is it so difficult to define the beginning
and ending of the Development in one of her best-known works, the
first movement of her Piano Sonata II? Thirty students and
colleagues arrived at nearly thirty different answers to this
question. I propose a linear analysis to best define the
Development's parameters, an analysis which reveals a large-scale
octave descent in the bass register. This octave descent spans
neither the major nor the minor scale, but instead prolongs a
Polish folk mode known as the Podhalean mode. 
ACCOMPANYING FILES:      		mto.93.0.4.mcname1.gif
[1] Internationally acclaimed as both a concert violinist and a
composer, Grazyna Bacewicz (1909-1969) holds a place in history
as "the greatest woman composer of her time, and the most
prolific female composer of all time."(1) Her national and
international awards for composition are numerous, reaching their
peak during the 1950's. In terms of Polish music history,
Bacewicz succeeded Szymanowski in the leadership role in her
country, before relinquishing that position to Lutoslawski and
Penderecki. Her relative obscurity in the U.S. may be due to the
conservative language of her music, reflecting her choice to
conform to the political pressures of her times. Bacewicz's music
most often receives the adjectives "neoclassical,"
"conservative," and "influenced by Polish folk music." Perhaps
this apparent passivity was of less interest to Americans than
the rebelliousness and modernism of Lutoslawski. 
1. Rosen, Judith, *Grazyna Bacewicz: Her Life and Works*, Polish
Music History Series, vol. 2 (Los Angeles: University of Southern
California, 1984), 15.
	MTO's format does not allow for diacritical marks at the
present time.  A dot belongs over the z in Grazyna, changing the
pronunciation to a hard z (Grah-ZHYH-nah Bah-TSEH-veetch). 
[2] Whatever the reasons for the previous lack of exposure, one
now finds increasing interest in the U.S. in the music of this
outstanding composer. New recordings, books, and articles appear
with growng frequency.(2) However, very little has yet to appear
in the way of detailed analysis. A piece which is perhaps the
most readily available, beautiful, and representative of
Bacewicz's work is the Second Piano Sonata, composed in 1953.
With the adjectives conservative and neoclassical in mind, one
might expect that a formal analysis of the first movement of this
piano sonata would be straightforward. After discussing the
question of form with about 30 students and colleagues, I learned
with each differing answer that the exact form causes great
confusion. Not about whether or not the movement is in sonata
form -- that was agreed to by all. But confusion arose as to
where the Development begins and ends. Perhaps Bacewicz's music
is more "neo" than "Classical," perhaps more innovative than
previously thought, while still conforming to the political
demands of the day.
2. In English sources, four scholars have done significant work
on Bacewicz's music.  Pioneering work was done by Judith Rosen in
"Grazyna Bacewicz: Evolution of a Composer," as part of *Musical
Woman, An International perspective, vol. 1* (Westport, CT and
London: Greenwood, 1983, pub. 1984), 105-17.  In the same
publication, an article about two of Bacewicz's seven string
quartets appears, written by Elizabeth Wood, "Grazyna Bacewicz:
Form, Syntax, Style," 118-27. Judith Rosen authored the first
monograph in English, cited in footnote 1. Next in that series is
Thomas Adrian's *Grazyna Bacewicz: Chamber and Orchestral Music*,
Polish Music History Series, vol. 3 (Los Angeles: University of
Southern California, 1985), which contains an excellent
bibliography on pages 119-21.  A recent publication is Sharon
Guertin Shafer's *The Contribution of Grazyna Bacewicz (1909-
1969) to Polish Music* (Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 1992),
which discusses Bacewicz's songs.
	All of the above sources taken together add up to only 319
pages; research has just begun in the West.
[3] The present article offers work in progress. Its focus is
extremely narrow, that of finding the exact parameters of the
Development section of the first movement of Bacewicz's Second
Piano Sonata. In order to define the form, I offer a combination
of linear analysis and modal analysis, as well as a glimpse at
Bacewicz's sketch material. I propose that a large-scale
prolongation of an octave defines the Development section,
overshadowing thematic coincidences. Because the essay is online,
I hope that this topic, which has already generated many
differing responses, will continue to spark discussion in an
electronic forum.
[4] The part of the score needed for this discussion can be found
in Examples 1 and 2a-2d. For the entire score, see James
Briscoe's *Historical Anthology of Music by Women*, which
contains all movements of the sonata.(3) The sonata has been
recorded by the following four pianists: 1) Anna Briscoe, on the
companion cassettes to the *Historical Anthology of Music by
Women*, 2) Nancy Fierro, Avant AV 1012, 3) Krystian Zimerman,
Muza SX 1510, and 4) Regina Smendzianka, Muza SXL 0977. Another
alternative for hearing the piece is requesting that I send it to
you electronically.(4)
3. *Historical Anthology of Music by Women* James Briscoe, ed.
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), 298-318. The two
pages preceding the piano sonata contain excellent commentary on
the piece by Adrian Thomas. Examples 1 and 2a-2d have been
reprinted by kind permission of Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne.
	Another excellent two-page commentary on Bacewicz can be
found in *Women and Music: A History* Karin Pendle, ed.
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991), 197-99.
4. If you e-mail me directly at amcname1.cc.swarthmore.edu I will
attempt to send you the six minutes of music in the FTP format. 
Be forewarned that you must have at least 6 megabytes of memory
available to receive this amount of sound over the network. This
procedure is possible because of the kind permission of Indiana
University Press. 
[5] I will begin with a brief discussion of the opening phrases
of the Exposition, then look for the start of the Development.
After that formal point has been established, the start of the
Recapitulation will be discussed. I will then consider the
structure of the Development as a whole.
[6] As shown in Example 1, Bacewicz's Second Piano Sonata opens
with a two-measure Maestoso passage, followed by a change in
tempo to Agitato. A critical feature of the link between these
two musical statements is the bass motion, from the octave B in
measures 1-2 to the octave E (the tonic). This simple, Classical
gesture of a dominant to tonic motion also brings in the folk
elements of the open octave pedal point and a melody which
emphasizes perfect fourths. I view the first two measures as an
anacrusis motive, a slow introduction to the first theme which
begins in measure 3. The anacrusis motive becomes the central
issue in deciding on the start of the Recapitulation. After the
anacrusis motive, measures 3-10 contain the first theme, a full-
bodied, 8-bar Agitato statement.
[7] Although a gap in the score occurs between Examples 1 and 2a
(in order to keep the GIF files to a tolerable amount), the music
shown in Example 2a introduces the second theme of the
Exposition. I agree with Adrian Thomas that the second theme 
begins at the poco meno in measure 42. Thomas does not propose a
starting measure for the Development, but instead characterizes
Bacewicz as "a rhapsodist, constantly reshaping her materials
through the developmental association of motivic ideas."(5) This
ambiguity of form is in keeping with Charles Rosen's idea, that,
after Brahms, sonatas often contain an indistinct link from the
Exposition to the Development: "In general, it [sonata form] was
considered a variant of ternary form, an ABA scheme in which the
first A section does not really conclude, and the B section is
characterized by fragmentation, thematic development, and a
dramatic texture."(6) 
5. Thomas, *Historical Anthology of Music by Women*, 298.
6. Rosen, Charles, *Sonata Forms [revised edition]* (New York and
London: W. W. Norton & Co., 1988), 403.
[8] Thomas and Rosen are perhaps supported by the varied,
seemingly "random" answers I received for determining the start
of the Development. Students and colleagues have selected almost
*evey* measure as a possible starting point between measures 65
and 91. I disagree with them all; I apparently alone hear the
start of the Development at measure 64.(7) Somewhat of a cluster
of responses seemed to favor measure 70 or 91 as the
Development's starting point. I believe that a detailed enough
analysis of the form can yield a very convincing, quite
innovative, structure. Examples 2a, 2b, 2c, and 2d contain the
score for the entire Development section.
7. One respondent, a fifth-semester theory student, came the
closest to hearing the piece the way I do, choosing measure 65
for the beginning of the Development. That student was Roxanna
Glass, now a doctoral candidate at CUNY-Graduate Center.
[9] Example 3 contains the sketch material for the disputed start
of the Development (reprinted by kind permission of the
University of Warsaw Library). Notice that the "poco a poco
cresc. ed accelerando," which is buried a bit in the published
score (measures 64-66, Example 2a), is very prominently set off
in the sketch. This is fortuitous for me, because the start of
the "poco a poco cresc." coincides exactly with what I call the
start of the Development. The sketch material raises several
questions, however. For example, in measure 64 of the published
score, a C-natural appears in the right-hand part. The equivalent
place in the sketch shows a discrepancy, a C#. Questions like
this one are part of a more complete analysis of this piece,
which is outside the scope of the present article.
[10] Of course, one should not read too much into the sketch
material in this instance. Other more compelling reasons support
the idea that the Development begins in measure 64. For example,
the measures preceding the Development, measures 55-59, contain
the anacrusis motive from measures 1 and 2, signaling an upcoming
important event. This sense of anticipation is extended in
measures 61-63 by a "trill," F-Gb (enharmonically F-F#), a fifth
away from B. Taking these anticipatory musical gestures into
account, the transition to the Development echoes the opening of
the Exposition. In measures 1-2, the B in the bass introduces the
E tonic of the first theme, also a fifth away. The anacrusis
motive serves the same function in both important formal points
of the piece. In fact, both the anacrusis motive and the trill
recur throughout the piece with anticipatory functions. Measures
8, 41, 52, and 55-59 contain variants of the anacrusis motive,
while measures 12, 51, and 53 contain the trill motive, in each
case, heralding upcoming thematic events.
[11] All of these reasons lead to a clear decision that the
Development begins in measure 64: the anticipation of an
important formal event by both the anacrusis and trill motives,
the enharmonic F#-B fifth motion, paralleling the fifth motion of
the opening of the movement, and a distinctive placement in the
[12] While finding the start of the Development may be difficult
for recent sonatas, finding the start of the Recapitulation for
most sonatas, even non-tonal ones, should create less dispute.
For this piece, however, student and colleagues' responses
clustered into three different places: measure 120, 129, or 130.
(See Example 2d for the score.)   
[13] One could argue that the music in measure 129 is so similar
to the very first two measures of the piece that one must say the
Recapitulation has already begun by this point. Alternatively,
the choice of measure 120 as the start of the Recap presents a
variant on this idea. The dramatic tempo shift in measure 120
after the long rests in measure 119, the similar melodic content
of perfect fourths and minor sevenths, and the octave B in the
bass all support this analysis. Proponents of this formal scheme
say that the music of measures 1 and 2 has returned in measures
120-129, with an expansion and development. Charles Rosen
mentions three examples of sonatas that contain slow
introductions with reappearances at the same tempo later in the
8. Rosen, Charles, 243. On the same page, Rosen also states,
"They [slow introductions] are best viewed rhythmically as large-
scale upbeats, and harmonically the dominant pedal is the most
important element in their structure -- and in their emotional
effect as well, as it creates a sense of something about to
[14] Both of these ideas (measure 120 or 129) for the start of
the Recapitulation are flawed, and flawed for the same reason.
Measures 1 and 2 do not present the first theme, but rather an
introduction or anacrusis to the first theme, which does not
begin until measure 3. Reasons for discounting the initial two
measures as theme 1 are the brevity of melodic statement, the
dramatic shift of tempo from slow to fast, and, most importantly,
the bass note B which functions as a dominant, leading
convincingly to E in measure 3. The theme in measure 3 has all of
the characteristics of a sonata-allegro first theme, the allegro
quality, a convincingly meaty melodic statement, and the tonic E
as its bass. The melodic gestures in the first two measures,
rising perfect fourths and minor sevenths, recur as upbeats at
other points in the movement, at a faster tempo.
[15] While I am convinced that the Recapitulation cannot begin
earlier than measure 130, I heartily agree with the idea that the
first two measures of the piece are expanded in measures 120-29. 
But that supports the idea of Development or Retransition all the
more, rather than Recapitulation. Of all the responses to my
question of form, my most memorable was, "The Development ends in
measure 119, and the Recapitulation begins in measure 130,"
cleverly willing away the sticky issue of the Andante section.
[16] Something equally, if not more, important than all of the
above reasons determines the form of this piece. Beneath the
surface of the piece -- the themes and the foreground
progressions -- the linear development and octave expansion at
the middleground level best support the analysis of measures 64-
129 as the Development. "Linear development" and "middleground"
immediately conjure up the Schenkerian model, with its large-
scale step-wise descents usually in the highest structural voice.
Extending linear analysis to include twentieth-century music,
several theorists have proposed more inclusive ideas of
prolongation. Most prominent among them, Allen Forte proposes
non-tonal prolongations in his many articles on linear
analysis.(9) Other theorists, notably Paul Wilson, Joseph Straus,
and Pieter van den Toorn, discuss linear motion over long spans
of music in the works of Slavic composers.(10) These
prolongations illuminate the structures of advanced tonal
language and of nontonal music, and allow for prolongations of
musical statements other than tonal ones. Registers other than
the highest register may carry equal weight. 
9. Bibliographies for this relatively new direction in analyzing
non-tonal and extended tonal music can be found at the end of
Allen Forte, "New Approaches to the Linear Analysis of Music,"
*Journal of the American Musicological Society* 41/2 (1988): 315-
48 and Allen Forte, "Concepts of Linearity in Schoenberg's Atonal
Music: A Study of the Op. 15 Song Cycle," *Journal of Music
Theory* 36/2 (1992): 285-382.  
10. Wilson, Paul, *The Music of Bela Bartok* (New Haven and
London: Yale University Press, 1992). Straus, Joseph N.,
*Introduction to Post-Tonal Theory* (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-
Hall, 1991). van den Toorn, Pieter, *The Music of Igor
Stravinsky* (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1984).
[17] Recognizing the inherent dangers of embarking on this
slippery slope, I would like to continue down their path and
introduce a modal prolongation of an octave, in the bass
register. This octave expansion not only spans all of the
Development section; it *defines* the Development section. 
[18]	Example 4a presents a preliminary version of a linear
analysis of the structure of the entire Development. During the
Development an octave is composed out in the bass, from the B in
measures 64-78 to the B in measures 121-29. One can easily find
comparable examples in the tonal literature for a Development
section being defined by a middleground prolongation of an
interval.(11) If one searches for a descending B Major or b minor
scale in the Bacewicz sonata, however, none would surface. A
particularly crucial part of a standard tonal investigation would
be the search for scale-degree 5, F#. It simply doesn't exist in
this octave descent. After the appearance of Gb (F#) in measures
61-63, as part of the trill to introduce the Development, F#
disappears. This disappearance seems to negate the possibility of
an octave descent in either B Major or b minor.
11. An especially beautiful example of an unfolded interval which
spans the entire Development section can be found in Heinrich
Schenker, *Five Graphic Music Analyses* (New York: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1969), 40-43. The Haydn sonata in this
example recurs as Figure 62 in Schenker's *Free Composition*
trans. and ed. by Ernst Oster (New York and London: Longman Inc.,
1979), with some discussion on page 64.
[19] I propose a more logical choice for a scale, a Polish folk
mode called the Podhalean mode, which infuses much of Bacewicz's
and Szymanowski's music. Example 4b shows the pitches of a
descending Podhalean scale on B. As in much of Slavic and Eastern
European folk music, characteristic features of this mode are the
raised fourth degree and the lowered seventh degree. Great
importance is placed on the raised scale-degree 4, a tritone away
from the tonic. Example 4c shows the same Podhalean scale on B,
but written with enharmonic equivalents.      
[20] This enharmonic form of the Podhalean mode appears very
prominently in the Development. As shown in Example 4d, a
middleground octave descent in the bass line spans the entire
Development section. I believe that this middleground descent is
compelling enough to be the main determining factor of form. The
start of the Development, in measure 64, presents a B in the
bass. A chromatic passing tone, B-flat, occurs in measures 82-87,
at an octave below, thereby hinting at the ultimate goal of the
descent, the lower octave. Scale-degree 7, A-natural, appears in
measures 88 and 89, first at the lower octave, and then in
measure 90 at the upper octave. From a thematic point of view,
what has been developed so far is the anacrusis motive and the
trill. In measures 77-78, the minor third, which first appeared
in measures 11-12, is developed. This minor third is embellished
with an upper neighbor in measures 82-88. The melodic shape,
clearly spelled out in the bass in measure 90, is reminiscent of
the bass in measures 39-40. Scale-degree 6, G#, occurs
enharmonically as A-flat in measure 91 and continues its
structural importance until measure 96. The fermata for this A-
flat emphasizes its importance, as does the immediate abandonment
of the low register. A combination of the trill motive and a
motive from measures 29-35 is being developed here. I consider
the B-flats in measures 95-96 as upper neighbors to A-flat and
the G-naturals in measure 97 as passing tones to the F in measure
[21] Scale-degree 5 appears nowhere prominently. Instead, great
emphasis is placed on the raised-fourth degree, F-natural
(enharmonically E#) in measures 99-102. Of critical importance is
which theme is being developed here. As shown in Example 4d, this
part of the Development highlights the second theme from the
Exposition (measures 42ff.). The theme is transposed and
beautifully augmented in the bass. This occurrence of the second
theme in the bass highlights the importance of the bass register
for the Development. It also highlights the Classical
sensibilities of Bacewicz, as this theme begins halfway through
the Development. A characteristic feature of the folk-influenced
music of Szymanowski and Bacewicz, this emphasis on raised scale-
degree 4 often replaces scale-degree 5 in the role of the
12. Talk of the tritone as "dominant" immediately brings to mind
Erno Lendvai's axis system, as described in *Bela Bartok: An
Analysis of his Music* (London: Kahn & Averill, 1971). In order
to actually understand Lendvai's ideas, one should read the
Appendix "Erno Lenvai and the Axis System" in Wilson's book, *The
Music of Bela Bartok*, 203-208. 
	Lendvai refers to the Podhalean mode as the acoustic or
overtone scale (Lendvai, 67). Another name for this mode is
"heptatonia seconda" (Wilson, 27). 
[22] If at this point in the Development one searches for scale-
degrees 3 and 2, one is tempted to assign great importance to the
descending E-flat and D-flat in measure 104. Although I do not
want to diminish the importance of this descent in terms of the
Podhalean scale prolongation, one must place this motion in
context. The second theme of the Exposition has a melody which
extends from measure 44 all the way to 48 (highlighted by
Bacewicz's phrase marking -- both in the published score and in
the sketches -- which does not end until measure 48). The ending
gesture of this theme is a stepwise descent. I hear that portion
of the theme being developed in measures 103 ff., in fact,
perhaps even being developed until the goal of the low B is
[23] Great anticipation of the Recapitulation begins in measure
105. The two-note motive develops both the trill idea and part of
the theme from measure 29 (previously developed in measures
91ff.). A chromatic rising motion in the upper voice in measures
115-118 has appeared many times before. This chromatic figure
first appears in the middle voice in measures 2-7 (especially in
measure 6), as an accompaniment to the first theme. It is
inverted in measures 41-47, as an accompaniment to the second
theme. This chromatic figure begins the Development, in measures
64, 66, and 68, as part of a call-and-response juxtaposition with
the trill figure in measure 65 and the fourths and sevenths
figure in measures 67 and 69! The chromatic motive convincingly
accompanies the arrival of B in the bass, which occurs in
measures 115-119, but in the wrong, higher, octave. Or is it
wrong? Perhaps the higher octave B in the bass during these
measures, moving to the lower octave B  at the Andante in measure
121, emphasizes linearly the vertical B octave itself. Put
another way, the B-B motion summarizes the entire Development,
and its linear expansion of that octave.
[24] The Development is not complete, therefore, without the
arrival of the lowest B octave. After its arrival in measure 120,
B structures the harmony over the next nine measures, creating an
enormous development of the opening two measures of the piece. 
This long B is finally resolved to an E in measure 130. The
Development is complete, the linear descent of an octave
accomplished, and the Recapitulation perfectly prepared!(13)
13. Does it make any sense for Bacewicz to have structured the
Development in this way, that registral expansion is supreme?
Bacewicz was a world-class violinist, concertizing throughout
Europe. It is possible that her sensitivity to register developed
through her string playing. It is also possible that the
expansion of the bass register, so critical to solo violin music,
may have influenced her piano writing.
[25] During the height of creative repression in Poland after the
War, Bacewicz chose to comply with Soviet directives and to use
traditional forms and Polish idioms for her compositions. The
neoclassicism in her music is obvious; no one hears this first
movement as anything other than sonata-allegro form. Yet, when
pressed for specifics, the "Classicism" has more depth than at
first glance; the exact form is not self-evident. Using my
analysis, we find an extraordinarily balanced movement, with
about two minutes of music each for the Exposition, Development,
and the Recapitulation.  Halfway through the Development, the
second theme appears in the bass. The prolonged bass pitch for
the second theme is F-natural, a tritone away from B, with its
own internal suggestion of symmetry -- splitting the octave in
half. This elegantly balanced Classical architecture supports an
innovative, multi-levelled use of the Podhalean mode.
[26] Many examples of folk influence occur in this piece. In
measures 1-2, the slow introduction, great melodic emphasis is
placed on the perfect fourth. This rising fourth generates the
second theme of the Exposition by being filled in. Also, as shown
literally in measures 1-2, two perfect fourths in succession
create a rising minor seventh. This minor seventh echoes the
lowered seventh scale degree of the Podhalean mode. The seventh
also serves to intertwine the older folk idiom with the modern
dissonance of exposed sevenths. As Adrian Thomas states so well,
Bacewicz's music is not formulaic.(14) Enter the term
"rhapsodist," a term which begs for clarification.
14. Thomas especially dislikes the "logic of form" generality. "'Logic of
form,' on the other hand, is a particular and oft-repeated nonsense.  As a
compositional attribute it is intrinsically indefinable, and few composers
would relish such a label when unaccompanied by an appraisal of the ideas
that create the form." (*Grazyna Bacewicz: Chamber and Orchestral Music*,
[27] Quite hidden to both characterizations of "rhapsodist" and
"folk-influenced" is the large-scale expansion of the Podhalean
mode throughout the Development section. While the rhapsodist
seems to wander astray, the classicist subtly crafts a
beautifully centered art form. The folk quality, reminiscent of
Szymanowski's last pieces, unfolds very differently for Bacewicz
than for Szymanowski.
[28] As research continues, perhaps a new legacy for Bacewicz
will take shape. The pejorative implications of the labels
"formal," "conservative," and "non-innovative" may yield to an
assessment of her music on its own terms, peacefully coexisting
with the non-innovative music of her alphabetical neighbor, Bach.
In fact, with respect to multilevel, modal structures, Bacewicz
is indeed innovative. The first two measures of the Second Piano
Sonata, with its vertical B octave in the bass moving to the E
and to theme 1 in measure 3, anticipates the entire Development
section. The Development takes the bass octave and prolongs it
linearly by means of the Podhalean mode. This large-scale descent
creates a remarkable middleground structure.
[29] I view the geneology in Polish music not as Bacewicz's being
a disciple of Szymanowski (just as Szymanowski was not a
"disciple" of Chopin), but as a successor to the throne. During
the 1950's, Bacewicz was Poland's leading composer, male or
female. With further analysis, continued exposure and attention,
Bacewicz's music may come to be viewed in a similar light to the
neoclassical work of Bartok.(15) 
15. Paul Wilson convincingly analyzes Bartok's Piano Sonata with
several levels of pitch-class sets linked to levels of prolonged
linear motion (*The Music of Bela Bartok*, 55-84). An analysis of
Bacewicz's sonata using set theory along with linear analysis is
in progress, but outside the scope of this article.
[30] Perhaps consensus can be reached that Bacewicz's sonata is
more "neo" than "Classical" in its use of Polish folk idioms,
more rhapsodic than formulaic in its emotional content, and, at
the same time, less rhapsodic and more formally structured in
terms of thematic development at the middleground. The beautiful
balance heard throughout many levels of the piano sonata brings
an elegance of form which perfectly complements the concentrated,
dramatic, virtuosic, and seemingly improvisitional quality of the
piece. I like to imagine that Bacewicz, while satisfying the
bureaucrats in power at the time, was able to save some
individualism for herself.(16)
16. I would like to thank Lee Rothfarb, Michael Marissen, and
George Huber for their help with this article.

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