1. Allen Forte, Tonal Harmony in Concept and Practice, 3rd ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979).

2. Edward Aldwell and Carl Schachter, Harmony and Voice Leading, 2d ed. (Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989).

3. Stefan Kostka and Dorothy Payne, Tonal Harmony with an Introduction to Twentieth-Century Music, 4th ed. (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2000), 52.

4. Heinrich Schenker, Harmony, ed. Oswald Jonas, trans. Elisabeth Mann Borgese (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954), 175.

5. Schenker, Harmony, 176.

6. Merton Shatzkin, "Interval and Pitch Recognition in and out of Immediate Context," Journal of Research in Music Education 29 (1981): 111-123, after surveying a dozen experimental studies of contextual and intervallic perception, noted "significant context effects," and remarked that "it is surprising that both research and ear training methods still concentrate on interval perception outside, rather than inside, a context" (pp. 111-12). Joel Wapnick, Gary Bourassa, and Joanne Sampson, "The Perception of Tonal Intervals in Isolation and in Melodic Context," Psychomusicology 2 (1982): 21-37, found that musicians were significantly more accurate at discriminating among and labeling intervals in a melodic context than in isolation.

7. David Butler, The Musician's Guide to Perception and Cognition (New York: Schirmer Books, 1992); Rudolf E. Radocy and J. David Boyle, Psychological Foundations of Musical Behavior (Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1997).

8. Gary E. Wittlich and Lee Humphries, Ear Training: An Approach Through Music Literature (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974).

9. See Educational Testing Service, Practicing to Take the GRE Music Test, 2nd ed. (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1993) for representative test items of this type.

10. George Pratt, Aural Awareness: Principles and Practice, rev. ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

11. Daniel Jacobson and Timothy Koozin, The Norton CD-ROM Masterworks, vol. 1. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1996).

End of Footnotes