1. Scott Messing, Neoclassicism in Music: From the Genesis of the Concept Through the Schoenberg/Stravinsky Polemic (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1988), 151-152.

2. Richard Wagner, "Music of the Future," in Three Wagner Essays, trans. Robert L. Jacobs (London: Eulenburg Books, 1979), 24.

3. Wagner, 25.

4. Wagner, 25-26.

5. Wagner, 27.

6. See Vincent Scully, et al., The Age of Reptiles: The Great Dinosaur Mural at Yale (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990).

7. This illustration made its first appearance in F. Clark Howell, Early Man (New York: Time-Life Books, 1968), 41-45. As Howell shows, it is simply the late-twentieth-century scion of a venerable lineage of nineteenth-century march-of-progress illustrations (see especially the 1867 march-of-progress recapitulating all animal life, in Howell, 20).

8. M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1953), 198-213. See also Bertha Mueller, trans., Goethe's Botanical Writings (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1952), esp. 162. Mueller points out that Goethe's own use of the term "evolution" corresponds to the obsolete doctrine of preformation, as when he notes: "The new and the similar is at the beginning always part of the same thing, and in this sense proceeds from it, thus supporting the idea of evolution" (85-86).

9. Karl J. Fink, in Goethe's History of Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), addresses the relevance of Goethe's scientific inquiries and writings to his literary oeuvre. According to Goethe, the various components of any given plant are all leaf, i.e., all an offshoot of the organic form-generating properties of the plant; their differentiation into leaf, blossom, and so on, is more apparent than real; every part expresses the whole, and the whole is implicit in each part. By corollary, every plant that breeds true is simply a leaf on a larger plant, and all of the botanical world is a single organism reaching backwards into the earliest past and forward endlessly into the future.

10. Stephen Jay Gould, Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History (New York: W.W. Norton, 1989). Another component of the enlightened Victorian's world-view was Charles Lyell's doctrine of uniformitarianism, which contradicted the catastrophism implicit in the Biblical account of creation. Lyell, attempting ca. 1830 to explain geological evidence that seemed to contradict Genesis, expounded the belief that the natural forces observable in the present day had been in operation in ancient times as well. This tenet, correct as far as it goes, was an essential component of Darwin's thought and is the inertial principle against which Gould's own doctrine of punctuated equilibrium is seen to operate. See Gould, "Uniformity and Catastrophe," in Ever Since Darwin (New York: W.W. Norton, 1977), 147-152.

11. Gould, 31-32. Gould is referring specifically to Zallinger's human "March of Progress" illustration in Howell, 41-45. I am indebted to the FAQ page of Jim Foley's Talk.Origins website (at http://www.talkorigins.org/) for helping me pinpoint the source of this illustration.

12. See Severine Neff, "Schoenberg and Goethe: Organicism and Analysis," in Music Theory and the Exploration of the Past, ed. Christopher Hatch and David W. Bernstein (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 409-433.

13. Neff, 415.

14. In Arnold Schoenberg, "Composition with Twelve Tones (I)" in Style and Idea: Selected Writings, ed. Leonard Stein, trans. Leo Black, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), 277.

15. Schoenberg, "Brahms the Progressive," in Style and Idea, 399-401.

16. Schoenberg, "Brahms the Progressive," 402-415.

17. Joseph N. Straus, Remaking the Past: Musical Modernism and the Influence of the Tonal Tradition (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990), 39.

18. Anton Webern, The Path to the New Music, ed. Willi Reich, trans. Leo Black (Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presser, 1963), 20.

19. Webern, 35.

20. Pierre Boulez, "Schoenberg is Dead," in Notes of an Apprenticeship, trans. Herbert Weinstock (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968).

21. Messing, 1-59 passim.

22. Messing, 30.

23. Messing, 43.

24. Claude Debussy, "Monsieur Croche the Dilettante Hater," in Three Classics in the Aesthetics of Music, B. N. Langdon Davies, trans. (New York: Dover, 1962), 69-70.

25. Messing, 43.

26. In Fran�ois Lesure and Roger Nichols, eds., Debussy Letters (London: Faber and Faber, 1987), 292-3, 324.

27.  In Fran�ois Lesure and Richard Langham Smith, eds., Debussy on Music (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1977), 96, 229, 233, 245, 296-7.

28. Lesure and Smith, 297.

29. Pierre Boulez, "Incipit," in Notes of an Apprenticeship, 277.

30. Pierre Boulez, "Incipit," in Points de rep�re, I (Paris: Christian Bourgeois Editeur, 1995), 153.

31. Pierre Boulez, "Schoenberg is Dead," 269.

32. Ibid., 271.

33. Cf. Straus on Harold Bloom's anxiety model of creative influence and the Oedipal resonances therein. Straus, 14.

34. Straus, 13.

35. Luigi Russolo, *The Art of Noises (Futurist Manifesto 1913)*, trans. Barclay Brown (New York: Pendragon Press, 1986), 23.

36. Ferruccio Busoni, A New Aesthetic of Music, ed. Thomas Baker (New York: G. Schirmer, 1911), 3-4.

37. Busoni, 8-9.

38. Harry Partch, Genesis of a Music: An Account of a Creative Work, Its Roots and Its Fulfillments, 2nd ed. (New York: Da Capo Press, 1974), 7.

39. The following is a sample of his cyclical mindset: "It was the tendency ten centuries ago, also, to reject 'modern,' or individual, thinkers, but to the everlasting credit of the little 'interpreters' who lived in the dark ages let it be said that they did not engage press agents to label them as 'great artists'." Partch, 55.

40. George Rochberg, "On the Third String Quartet," in The Aesthetics of Survival: A Composer's View of Twentieth Century Music (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1984), 239.

41. See, for example, collections of articles by composers such as Paul Henry Lang, ed., Problems of Modern Music (New York: G. Shirmer, 1960), all of which were originally published in Musical Quarterly; Benjamin Boretz and Edward T. Cone, eds., Perspectives on Contemporary Music Theory (New York: W. W. Norton, 1972), all of which were originally published in Perspectives of New Music.

42. Thomas Willis, "A New Romanticism? or High Tech/High Touch?," in Horizons '83: Since 1968, a New Romanticism?, Linda Sanders, ed. (New York Philharmonic, 1983), 10.

43. Igor Stravinsky, Stravinsky: An Autobiography (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1936), 142.

End of footnotes