1. Middleton, "Introduction: Locating the Popular Music Text," 9. All essays cited in this review appear in Reading Pop unless stated otherwise.

2. Tagg, "Analysing Popular Music: Theory, Method, and Practice," 74.

3. Bj�rnberg, "Structural Relationships of Music and Images in Music Video," 347.

4.Middleton, "Popular Music Analysis and Musicology: Bridging the Gap," 104-21.

5. Covach, "We Won't Get Fooled Again: Rock Music and Musical Analysis," in Keeping Score: Music, Disciplinarity, Culture, ed. David Schwarz, Anahid Kassabian, and Lawrence Siegel (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1997), 75.

6. Tagg's call, familiar from previous work, underlies his argument in "Analysing Popular Music," 77.

7. Fiori, "Listening to Peter Gabriel's 'I Have the Touch'," 183-91.

8. Moore, "'The Hieroglyphics of Love': The Torch Singers and Interpretation," 262-96.

9. Leppert and Lipsitz, "'Everybody's Lonesome for Somebody': Age, the Body, and Experience in the Music of Hank Williams," 307-28.

10. Middleton presents his understanding of Schenkerian analysis in Studying Popular Music (Buckingham, UK: Open University Press, 1990), 192-97.

11. Allen Forte, The American Popular Ballad of the Golden Era 1924-1950 (Princeton University Press, 1995).

12. The example is 1.6, on p. 38. Winkler characterizes it in "Randy Newman's Americana," 41, n. 3.

13. Middleton, "Popular Music Analysis," 115. The editor footnotes this observation (115, n. 5) thus: "For Schenker's theory, which sees all good music as based on an underlying I-V-I harmonic progression, see [Studying Popular Music], 192-5."

14. The bVII - IV - I pattern, quite common in rock music, is exemplified in Sheila Whiteley's "Progressive Rock and Psychedelic Coding in the Work of Jimi Hendrix," 239, as well as in Bj�rnberg, "Structural Relationships," 360.

15. Whiteley, "Progressive Rock," 236.

16. Middleton, "Popular Music Analysis," 120.

17. Brackett, "James Brown's 'Superbad' and the Double-Voiced Utterance," 135.

18. Middleton, "Introduction," 4.

19. Bj�rnberg, "Structural Relationships," 356.

20. Middleton, "Introduction," 4.

21. Winkler, "Randy Newman's Americana," 51.

22. Actually, Winkler tries to link a pentatonic melody to supportive harmony, but this remains unconvincing because such scale degrees are fundamentally unlinked to all harmonic function. Black-key melodic dissonance resolution in an Eb blues on the piano, for example, is far more limited an effect than that in a diatonic system.

23. Hawkins, "Prince: Harmonic Analysis of 'Anna Stesia'," 63.

24. Hawkins, "Prince," 63.

25. Cubitt, "'Maybelline': Meaning and the Listening Subject," 150.

26. Hawkins, "Prince," 60, n. 1.

27. Cubitt, "'Maybelline'," 157.

28. Cubitt, "'Maybelline'," 158.

29. Middleton, "Introduction," 6-7.

30. Middleton, "Analysing the Music," 23.

31. Hawkins misses the forest for the trees in another essential way, too; whereas the chordal ("harmonic") language in the single song by Prince, "Anna Stesia" (despite its amazing dearth of harmonic interest), is his sole area of inquiry, he never does point out the relationship between the title's pun and the static, sleep-inducing nature of a song entirely devoid of a major-mode dominant.

32. Middleton, "Introduction," 6; ellipses and brackets are Middleton's. Forte is quoted from The American Popular Ballad, 334, 335, 347.

33. Middleton, "Introduction," 2, n. 2.

34. Moore, "'The Hieroglyphics'," 263.

35. Winkler, "Writing Ghost Notes: The Poetics and Politics of Transcription," in Keeping Score: Music, Disciplinarity, Culture, 169-203.

36. Griffiths, "Three Tributaries of 'The River," 192-202.

37. Hamm, "Genre, Performance, and Ideology in the Early Songs of Irving Berlin," 297-306.

38. Hisama, "Postcolonialism on the Make: The Music of John Mellencamp, David Bowie, and John Zorn," 329-46.

39. Taylor, "His Name Was in Lights: Chuck Berry's 'Johnny B. Goode'," 165-82.

40. The lone chapter not mentioned elsewhere in this review presents--despite its display of admirable depth and occasional flair--what is to me a largely off-the-mark reading of a set of Buddy Holly's lyrics and his vocal articulation of them: Barbara Bradby and Brian Torode, "Pity Peggy Sue," 203-27.