1. David Epstein, Shaping time (New York: Schirmer, 1994); Anders Friberg and Johan Sundberg, "Does music performance allude to locomotion? A model of final ritardandi derived from measurements of stopping runners," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 105/3 (1999): 1469-1484; Neil P.M. Todd, "Motion in Music: A Neurobiological Perspective," Music Perception 17/1 (1999): 115-126.

2. Peter Desain, Henkjan Honing, Huub van Thienen and Luke Windsor, "Computational modeling of music cognition: problem or solution?," Music Perception 16 (1998): 151-166.

3. This tale is a continuation of Peter Desain and Henkjan Honing, "Tempo Curves Considered Harmful", in Jonathan D. Kramer, ed., Contemporary Music Review 7/2 (1993): 123-138 ("Time in Contemporary Musical Thought"). See http://www.nici.kun.nl/mmm/tc for additional sound examples.

4. Bruno H. Repp, "Diversity and commonality in music performance: An analysis of timing microstructure in Schumann's Träumerei," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 92 (1992): 2546-2568.

5. Peter Desain and Henkjan Honing, "Does Expressive Timing in Music Performance Scale Proportionally with Tempo?," Psychological Research 56 (1994): 285-292; Henkjan Honing, "From time to time: The representation of timing and tempo," Computer Music Journal 35/3 (1999): 50-61.

6. For a further discussion see Henkjan Honing, "The Final Ritard: On Music, Motion, and Kinematic Models," Computer Music Journal, submitted (see http://www.nici.kun.nl/mmm/tc).

7. Special thanks to Robert Gjerdingen for valuable suggestions on an earlier version of this paper, and to Bruno Repp for his constructive criticisms. Thanks also to the Department of Mechanics, University of Amsterdam, for actually making the contraption described in this paper.

End of footnotes