1. Judith Ryan, The Vanishing Subject: Early Psychology and Literary Modernism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

2. Saussure, Cours de linguistique générale, ed. Charles Bally, Albert Sechehaye, Albert Riedlinger; trans. as Course in General Linguistics by Roy Harris (LaSalle, IL: Open Court, 1986), 110.

3. William James, Principles of Psychology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, [1890] 1983), 269-73.

4. August Strindberg, "Author's Note" to A Dream Play, in August Strindberg, Selected Plays, ed. and trans. Evert Sprinchorn (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986), 646.

5. To note a few bits of evidence: The first proper name in Schoenberg's Harmonielehre is that of Strindberg, cited as a "thinker who keeps on searching" (Schoenberg. Harmonielehre, trans. as Theory of Harmony by Roy C. Carter [Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978], vi, 2). At a gathering in 1909 or 1910, when Mahler suggested that Schoenberg should have his students read Dostoyevsky, Webern, who had been reading Strindberg's dream plays, retorted, "Please, we do have Strindberg" (Willi Reich Alban Berg, trans. Cornelius Cardew [New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965], 30-32; Hans and Rosaleen Moldenhauer Anton Webern: A Chronicle of His Life and Work [New York: Knopf, 1979], 108-9). Berg told Schoenberg in a letter of December 23, 1911 that he and Webern considered Schoenberg to be Strindberg's musical counterpart (Juliane Brand, Christopher Hailey, & Donald Harris, eds. The Berg-Schoenberg Correspondence: Selected Letters [New York: Norton, 1987], 61).

6. Schoenberg, Theory of Harmony, 422.

7. I have explored early twentieth-century conceptions of mind as a basis for understanding the Second Viennese School's early atonal music in Cramer, Music for the Future: Sounds of Psychology and Language in Works of Schoenberg, Webern, and Berg, 1908 to the First World War (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1997), 45-57, 297-401.

8. That is to say, I asserted that the common usage of the word Klangfarbenmelodie does not reflect Schoenberg's intention in coining it. Cramer, "Schoenberg's Klangfarbenmelodie: A Principle of Early Atonal Harmony," Music Theory Spectrum 24/1 (Spring 2002): 1-34.

9. Albert S. Bregman, Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990).

10. Albert S. Bregman, "Auditory Scene Analysis: Hearing in Complex Environments," in Thinking in Sound: The Cognitive Psychology of Human Audition, ed. Stephen McAdams & Emanuelle Bigand (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 11.

11. This demonstration is based on experiments by van Noorden, reported in Leo P. A. S. van Noorden, "Minimum differences of level and frequency for perceptual fission of tone sequences ABAB," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 61 (1977): 1041-5. Other demonstrations along these lines may be heard in Albert S. Bregman and Pierre A. Ahad, Demonstrations of Auditory Scene Analysis (Compact Disc with booklet. Montreal: Psychology Department, McGill University, 1995; distributed Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

12. David Huron, "Tone and Voice: A Derivation of the Rules of Voice-Leading from Perceptual Principles," Music Perception 19/1 (Fall 2001): 1-64 [18-19].

13. Huron, "Tone and Voice," 19.

14. For a good introductory summary of the factors involved in auditory streaming and fusion, see Huron, "Tone and Voice,"  1-21.

15. For a discussion of a possible neural process by which what is commonly called "melody" can be understood in terms of auditory scene analysis, see Robert O. Gjerdingen, "Apparent Motion in Music?" Musical networks: Parallel distributed perception and performance (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999): 141-73; revision of "Apparent Motion in Music?" Music Perception 11 (1994): 335-70. A slightly different interpretation of the perceptual significance of auditory scene analysis is presented in Lerdahl, Tonal Pitch Space (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 81-82. 

16. Bregman discusses the significance of ASA to music in Bregman, Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound, Chapter 5: "Auditory Organization in Music."

17. See Albert S. Bregman, Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound, 488-9 on the timbral consequences of fusion in music and 511 on dissonance as a timbre.

18. Schoenberg, Theory of Harmony, 20-1. I discuss this passage in Cramer, "Schoenberg's Klangfarbenmelodie," 9-10. 

19. For another application of auditory scene analysis principles to early atonal expressionism, see Fred Lerdahl, "Spatial and Psychoacoustic Factors in Atonal Prolongation," Current Musicology 63 (1999): 7-26, much of which is restated with more complexity in Lerdahl, Tonal Pitch Space, chapter 8.

20. Huron, "Tone and Voice," 14-18.

21. Much of the following analysis, including the analytical diagram, is drawn from Cramer, "Schoenberg's Klangfarbenmelodie," 28-29.

22. Anton Webern, The Path to the New Music, trans. Leo Black (Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presser, 1963), 35.

23. Schoenberg, "Composition with Twelve Tones (1)," Style and Idea, ed. Leonard Stein, trans. Leo Black (Berkeley: University of California Press, [1975] 1984), 220.

End of footnotes