1. Felix Mendelssohn in a letter to Marc-André Souchay, Letters of Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy from 1833 to 1847, trans. Lady Wallace (London, 1864), 269-71.

2. David Lidov, "Mind and Body in Music," Semiotica 66, 1/3 (1987): 69-97.

3. Roger Graybill, "Towards a Pedagogy of Gestural Rhythm," Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy 4/1 (1990): 1-50; Alexandra Pierce, "Juncture," In Theory Only 3/6 (1977): 23-24; Pierce, "Structure and Phrase (Part I)," In Theory Only 4/5 (1978): 22-35; Pierce, "Performance Phrase--Structure and Phrase (Part II)," In Theory Only 5/3 (1979): 3-24; Pierce, "Climax in Music--Structure and Phrase," In Theory Only 7 (1983): 3- 30. I am grateful to Eurhythmic practitioners Robert Abramson, Gabriella Chrisman, Herb Henke, and Stephen Moore for their ideas and inspiration. This article represents a pilot study, a first step in a book that I am planning that will elaborate more fully the background of this approach and will present a comprehensive curriculum for developing movement-to-music skills in colleges, universities, and conservatories.

4. Julia Schnebly-Black and Stephen Moore, The Rhythm Inside: Connecting Body, Mind and Spirit through Music (Oregon: Rudra Press, 1997), 43. Interested readers might also wish to consult the following sources relating to embodied cognition, which address the connections between aural perception and bodily movement: Arnie Cox, "The Mimetic Hypothesis and Embodied Musical Meaning," Musicae Scientiae 5/2 (2002): 195-234; Ellen Dissanayake, Homo Aestheticus (New York: The Free Press, 1992); Marian T. Dura, Music Education and the Music Listening Experience (Queenston, Ontario: Edwin Mellen Press, 2002); Rudolph E. Radocy and David J. Boyle, Psychological Foundations of Music Behavior, 2d ed. (Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 1979); Alf Gabrielson, ed., Action and Perception in Rhythm and Music (Stockholm: Royal Swedish Academy of Music, 1987); Neil McAngus Todd, "The Dynamics of Dynamics: A Model of Musical Expression," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 91 no. 6 (1992): 3540-3550.

5. Schnebly-Black and Moore, 44.

6. Graybill, 1.

7. This exercise also works very well for teaching asymmetrical meter. I have successfully used this approach with Brubeck's "Rondo Alla Turk" to teach the off-kilter feel of 2 + 2 + 3.

8. Pierce, "Climax in Music--Structure and Phrase," 14.

9. I would like to thank the students at Oberlin Conservatory for all their time and energies in participating in the reenactments, and to my husband, Jonathan Niefeld, for shooting the videos. I extend special thanks to Tom Lopez for his technical expertise in helping to produce the videos, to Stephen Moore for allowing me to use the Bartok video from his class, and to Allen Cadwallader for his editorial assistance.

End of footnotes