1. Vladimir Nabokov, Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited (rev. ed., New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1996). See, for example, Joseph Brodsky's "The Condition We Call Exile," in his On Grief and Reason: Essays (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995), 22-34. Among the many writings by Said, Kundera, and Sebald, see Edward W. Said, The Politics of Dispossession: The Struggle for Palestinian Self-Determination, 1969-1994 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1994) and Out of Place: A Memoir (New York: Knopf, 1999); Milan Kundera, The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, trans. from the French by Aaron Asher (New York: Harper Perennial, 1996); W. G. Sebald, The Emigrants, trans. Michael Hulse (New York: New Directions, 1996), Austerlitz, trans. Anthea Bell (New York: The Modern Library, 2001), and On the Natural History of Destruction, trans. Anthea Bell (New York: Random House, 2003).

2. Sebastião Salgado, Terra: Struggle of the Landless, preface by Jos� Saramago; poetry by Chico Buarque (London: Phaidon, 1997); Migrations: Humanity in Transition (New York: Aperture, 2000); and The Children: Refugees and Migrants, concept and design by Lélia Wanick Salgado, 1st English ed. (New York: Aperture, 2000).

3. Rabbit-Proof Fence, based on a true story, as told in the book by Doris Pilkington Garama; directed by Phillip Noyce (Miramax Films, Hanway, and the Australian Film Finance Corporation, Rumbalara Films and Olsen Levy Production, 2003).

4. Nicholas Marston, "Schubert's Homecoming," Journal of the Royal Musical Association 125 (2000): 248.

5. Eduard von Bauernfeld, Erinnerungen aus Alt Wien (Vienna, 1923), as cited in Leon Botstein, "Franz Schubert and Vienna," in The Cambridge Companion to Schubert, ed. Christopher H. Gibbs (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 22.

6. Marston, "Schubert's Homecoming," 248.

7. Charles Fisk, Returning Cycles: Contexts for the Interpretation of Schubert's Impromptus and Last Sonatas (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 8.

8. See Barbara Turchin, "The Nineteenth-century Wanderlieder Cycle," Journal of Musicology 5/4 (1987): 498-525.

9. See Maynard Solomon, "Franz Schubert's �My Dream,'" American Imago 38 (1981): 137-54; and Fisk, Returning Cycles, 8-10. For the full text of Schubert's "Mein Traum" in translation, see Otto Erich Deutsch, Schubert: A Documentary Biography, trans. Eric Blom (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1946; rprt., New York: Da Capo, 1977; orig. pub. as Franz Schubert: Die Dokumente seines Lebens), 226-28.

10. See Peter Ostwald, Schumann: The Inner Voices of a Musical Genius (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1985), 66-69, 72. For statements in letters to Schumann from his mother, Ostwald cites Georg Eisman, Robert Schumann: Ein Quellenwerk über sein Leben und Schaffen, 2 vols. (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel Musikverlag, 1956), and Eugenie Schumann, Robert Schumann: Ein Lebensbild Meines Vaters (Leipzig: Koehler & Amelana, 1931). See also John Daverio, Robert Schumann: Herald of a "New Poetic Age" (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 61-62.

11. Robert Schumann, Jugendbriefe, 2nd ed., 2 vols., ed. Clara Schumann (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1886), 22-23 (letter of 24 October 1828), as translated and cited in Ostwald, Schumann, 34. In a reworking for his diary of the letter to his mother, Schumann further describes a dream in which his sister-in-law Therese stood before him and softly sang "süsse Heimath" (sweet home)�the Adagio ending of a song entitled "Heimweh" (homesickness) by Carl Gottlieb Reissiger (his Op. 50, No. 1); see Berthold Hoeckner, "Schumann and Romantic Distance," Journal of the American Musicological Society 50/1 (1997): 83-85.

12. Daverio, Robert Schumann, 181, citing (and translating) Schumann, Tageb�cher, Band II: 1836-1854, ed. Georg Eisman (Leipzig: VEB Deutscher Verlag f�r Musik, 1987), 90.

13. Daverio, Robert Schumann, 191.

14. Ibid., 193.

15.  Patrick McCreless, "Song Order in the Song Cycle: Schumann's Liederkreis, Op. 39" Music Analysis 5/1 (1986): 5-28; David Ferris, Schumann's Eichendorff "Liederkreis" and the Genre of the Romantic Cycle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000); Charles Burkhart, "Departures from the Norm in Two Songs from Schumann's Liederkreis," in Schenker Studies [I], ed. Hedi Siegel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 146-64.

16. Ferris, Schumann's Eichendorff "Liederkreis", 144.

17. Burkhart, "Departures from the Norm," 146-47.

18. Ibid., 153.

19. Daverio, Crossing Paths: Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 75; see Clara and Robert Schumann, Briefwechsel: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, ed. Eva Weissweiler with Susanna Ludwig, 3 vols. (Frankfurt: Stroemfeld/Roter Stern, 1984-2001), 145.

20. Charles Rosen sees the phrase at mm. 53-61 as "a consequent to the preceding phrase"; Rosen, The Romantic Generation (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995), 698. Following Arnold Schoenberg's more restrictive notion of antecedent-consequent, I propose that this last vocal phrase serves as a consequent to all earlier phrases except for the immediately preceding one: this last phrase begins as a varied repetition of the original at mm. 7-14, but now, rather than reaching only V, it closes on the tonic.

21. Ferris, Schumann's Eichendorff "Liederkreis", 156.

22. Burkhart, "Departures from the Norm," 147, 163-64.

23. Ferris, Schumann's Eichendorff "Liederkreis", 146, 156-57.

24. Ostwald, Schumann, 137. See Berthold Litzmann, ed., Clara Schumann: Ein K�nstlerleben nach Tageb�chern und Briefen, 3 vols. (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1902-08; 7th ed.,1925), 166.

25. Daverio, Robert Schumann, 194-195, 191.

26. See David Ferris, "Public Performance and Private Understanding: Clara Wieck's Concerts in Berlin," Journal of the American Musicological Society 56/2 (2003): 376-77, 380.

27. See Ostwald, Schumann, 7; and Daverio, Robert Schumann, 457-58.

28. For example, baritone Julius Stockhausen gave the first complete public performance of Schumann's Dichterliebe with Brahms as late as 1861, and with Clara in 1862; he later premiered complete public performances of Schumann's Frauenliebe und Leben, his Eichendorff Liederkreis, and the Spanisches Liederspiel. Clara's first public performance of Robert's piano cycle Davidsbündlertänze, Op. 6, did not occur until 1860, and even then she performed only ten of the eighteen dances; although she gave many private performances of Robert's Carnaval, Op. 9, and his Kinderszenen, Op. 15, her first public presentations of those cycles waited until 1856 and 1868, respectively. See Nancy B. Reich, Clara Schumann: The Artist and the Woman, rev. ed. (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2001), 208, 259. See also Kristina Muxfeldt, "Frauenliebe und Leben Now and Then," 19th-Century Music 25/1 (2001), 40; Muxfeldt reports that Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient performed the complete Frauenliebe at a private soir�e on 14 October 1848.

29. Charles Fisk, "Performance, Analysis, and Music Imagining, Part I: Schumann's Arabesque," College Music Symposium 36 (1996): 69-71.

30. See Daverio, Robert Schumann, 177.

31. Fisk, "Performance, Analysis, and Music Imagining," 65.

32. Ibid., 67.

33. Ibid., 68: "The music of this episode overlays the melodic motive of Minore I (5-6-5-2-3) with the upbeat-motive and the chromatic ascent from the theme, and then combines this new fusion with a stepwise melodic descent deriving from the transition (m 145-49)."

34. Marshall Brown, The Shape of German Romanticism (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1979), 124.

35. As translated in Anthony Newcomb, "Schumann and the Marketplace: From Butterflies to Hausmusik," in Nineteenth-Century Piano Music, ed. R. Larry Todd (New York: Schirmer Books, 1990), 266.

36. Ibid., 268, passim.

37. Hoeckner, "Schumann and Romantic Distance," 109-110. See also Hoeckner's Programming the Absolute: Nineteenth-Century German Music and the Hermeneutics of the Moment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), chap.2, "Schumann's Distance."

38. See Nicholas Marston, Schumann: Fantasie, Op. 17 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 6.

39. For example, see Newcomb, "Schumann and the Marketplace," 295-96.

40. See Rosen, The Romantic Generation, 103.

41. Ibid., 103, 101.

42. Michael P. Steinberg, "Schumann's Homelessness," in Schumann and His World, ed. R. Larry Todd (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), 65, 67.

43. As quoted in Marston, Schumann: Fantasie, Op. 17, 98.

44. As quoted in Stephen Downes, "Kierkegaard, a Kiss, and Schumann's Fantasie," Nineteenth-Century Music 22/3 (1999): 279.

End of footnotes