1. A version of this paper was presented at the Society for Music Theory conference in Madison, Wisconsin, November 2003. A version of the section on Eminem's "'97 Bonnie and Clyde," was presented at the conference Body Talk/Parler du corps, held at the University of Ottawa, November 2002.
2. See Mark Butler "Taking it Seriously: Intertextuality and Authenticity in Two Covers by the Pet Shop Boys," Popular Music 22/1 (2003), 1-19; Johan Fornäs, "Listen to Your Voice! Authenticity and Reflexivity in Rock, Rap, and Techno Music," in New Formations 24 (Winter, 1994), 155-173; Lawrence Grossberg, "The Media Economy of Rock Culture: Cinema, Postmodernity and Authenticity," in Sound and Vision: The Music Video Reader, ed. Simon Frith, Andrew Goodwin, and Lawrence Grossberg (New York: Routledge, 1993), 185-209; and Allan Moore, "Authenticity as Authentication," Popular Music 21/2 (2002), 209-223.
3. Moore (ibid.) uses the following terms to categorize these three perspectives: "first-person authenticity" is an original, unmediated expression (Moore, 213); "third-person authenticity" involves an appropriation of original material (215); and "second-person authenticity" takes into account the listener and his or her life values (220).
4. Richard Middleton, "Work-in(g)-Practice: Configurations of the Popular Music Intertext," in The Musical Work: Reality or Invention, ed. Michael Talbot (Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 2000), 61.
5. Ibid., 66.
6. Ibid., 67.
7. In The Power of Black Music (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), Samuel Floyd dedicates a chapter to the subject of Signifyin(g), reviewing the origins of the term, and contextualizing the rhetorical principals for musical interpretation. Floyd credits Henry Louis Gates's The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African American Literary Criticism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988) as the work that introduced this critical framework.
8. Gates, 52.
9. Ibid., 54.
10. I am stating the possibilities for narrative perspective here in rather basic terms, not really doing justice to the topic. For a more careful application of narrative theory to popular music analysis, please see Serge Lacasse, "Towards a Poetics of Phonography: The Narrative Function of the Vocal Scenography in Alanis Morissette's 'Front Row' (1998)," Musurgia IX/2 (2002), and Lori Burns "Feminist Vocal Authority: Musical and Narrative Expressive Strategies in Alternative Female Rock Artists (1993-95)," in New Approaches to the Analysis of Pop and Rock Music, edited by John Covach and Mark Spicer (University of Michigan Press, forthcoming, 2006).
11. John Hammond, quoted in David Margolick, Strange Fruit: Billie Holiday, Café Society, and an Early Cry for Civil Rights (Philadelphia: Running Press, 2000), 78.
12. Billie Holiday, "Strange Fruit," Frankie Newton, trumpet; Sonny White, piano (April 1939). Commodore 526.
13. Stuart Nicholson, Billie Holiday (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1995), 114.
14. Ibid., 114.
15. Will Friedwald, Jazz Singing (New York: Da Capo Press, 1992), 131-32.
16. Floyd, 8.
17. Guthrie Ramsey, Race Music: Black Cultures from Bebop to Hip-Hop (Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press), 32-33.
18. Marianne Hirsch and Valerie Smith, "Gender and Cultural Memory," Special Issue of Signs 28/1 (Autumn 2002), 5. On the subject of how history is transmitted, the authors refer the reader to Paul Connerton, How Societies Remember (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 39; and James Young, "Toward a Received History of the Holocaust," History and Theory 36/4 (1997), 41.
19. Hirsch and Smith, 9. In this regard, the authors refer us to Richard Schechner, Between Theater and Anthropology (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985).
20. The form of the original melody in Example 1 is based upon the published sheet music (words and music by Lewis Allan, Edward B. Marks Music Company, 1940). This score is our only source for the original composed version of the song. We can assert that the final published version of the song offers a form of blueprint for the song, a normative version that holds considerable value for any analyst. The "authenticity" of the sheet music is another research question. We do know that Abel Meeropol (Lewis Allan) worked with Holiday on the song in 1939, and we can assume that Holiday's development of the song had some influence on the final publication. However, it is also the case that the sheet music version does not reflect the melodic and rhythmic presentation of the Holiday recording.
21. Toni Morrison, "The Site of Memory," Inventing the Truth ed. William Zinsser (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1987), 106.
22. Ibid., 110.
23. "Strange Fruit" appeared on a UK release with "Cornflake Girl," "A Case of You," "If 6 was 9," Limited Edition CD (January 17, 1994), East West A7281.
24. Eminem, The Slim Shady LP, Aftermath Entertainment/Interscope Records (1999). CD 90287.
25. Karen Williams. Eminem: Life Story. Bauer Publishing Company, November 2002, 11.
26. Grover Washington Jr., Winelight (Elektra/Asylum, 1980). Another rap artist, Will Smith, also used the chorus of "Just the Two of Us" to record a song about his relationship with his son on the album Big Willie Style (1997). The song was also used in the movie Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me (1999) in a scene featuring Dr. Evil and his cloned son Mini-Me.
27. For accounts and critiques of the Bonnie and Clyde story, see E.R. Milner, The Lives and Times of Bonnie and Clyde (Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1996), and Phillip W. Steele and Marie Barrow Scoma, The Family Story of Bonnie and Clyde (Gretna: Penguin Publishing Company, 2000).
28. Tori Amos, Strange Little Girls. Atlantic Recording Corporation, 2001. CD 83486.
29. Tori Amos performs each song on the album Strange Little Girls from the perspective of a different female character; these characters are identified on the promotional album liner photos through photos of Amos herself adopting different dress codes and styles Novelist Neil Gaiman wrote twelve stories that serve as mini biographies for the characters. The Neil Gaiman stories were provided in the Strange Little Girls tour program. These stories and the accompanying photos can be found at: Neil Gaiman, Tori Amos: Strange Little Girls, 2001. Available at www.strange-little-girls.com/stories.html.
30. Tori Amos, quoted by Darren Davis, "Tori Amos Covers Eminem And Slayer On New Album," Launch (July 3, 2001), 1. Available at http://launch.yahoo.com/read/news.asp?contentID=200809.
31. Tori Amos, interviewed by Steve Hochman, " Tori Amos Offers a Woman's-Eye View of Songs by Men ," Los Angeles Times (July 1, 2001). Available at http://www.yessaid.com/interviews/01-07-01LATimes.html.
32. Tori Amos, reviewed and interviewed by Steffie Nelson, "Tori Amos: Personality Crisis," (October 21 2001). Available at http://www.mtv.com/bands/a/amos_tori/News_Feature100601/index.jhtml.
33. Tori Amos, quoted by Teri van Horn in "Tori Amos Says Eminem's Fictional Dead Wife Spoke to Her," MTV News Archive (Sept. 28, 2001). Available at http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1449422/20010928/story.jhtml.
34. Steffie Nelson, "Tori Amos: Personality Crisis."
End of footnotes