1. Eric Nestler and Robert Malenka, "The Addicted Brain," Scientific American 290/3 (March 2004): 81-82.

2. Antonio Demasio, Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Brain (New York: G.P. Putman's Sons, 1994), 164.

3. See Mark Solms, "Freud Returns," Scientific American 290.5 (May 2004), 82.

4. Demasio, op. cit. 121.

5. Joseph LeDoux, The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life (New York: Touchstone Books, 1996), 179-224.

6. Helen Fisher, Why We Love: The Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love (New York: Henry Holt, 2004), 149. She cites several examples on p. 192, involving George Washington and the Chinese poet Su Ting-Po.

7. Irving Kahal and Sammy Fain, "I'll Be Seeing You" from Right This Way (New York: The New Irving Kahal Music Company and Fain Music Co., 1938).

8. Robert Gauldin, "Reference and Association in the Vier Lieder Op. 2 of Alban Berg," Music Theory Spectrum 21/1 (Spring 1999): 32-42. The score of the third song appears on 153 of the spring issue of Spectrum 26/1, although no mention is made of the associative rationale for the modulation to D minor.

9. See Larry Todd, "On Quotations in Schumann's Music" in Schumann and his World, edited by Larry Todd, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1944).

10. Clara's acronymn CHAA, based on "CHiArinA," appears as the initial theme of Schumann's Piano Concerto in A minor.

11. I am indebted to Amy Sze's lecture recital "The Realization of Schumann's Philosophical Ideals and Personal Fantasies in Carnaval Op. 9" (Eastman School of Music, April 2004) for calling my attention to certain background information on Schumann and Ernestine.

12. David Brown, Tchaikovsky: A Biographical and Critical Study. Vol. 1: The Early Years. (London: Victor Gollancz, 1978), 197-98. Tchaikovsky employed the German rather than the Russian alphabet, as witnessed by the "Des" = Db.

13. Ibid, 198-200.

14. This material is extracted from my paper entitled "Tchaikovsky and Désirée: A Possible Secret Program for the Bb minor Piano Concerto," delivered at the regional Mid-Atlantic Theory Convention in Baltimore, April 2002.

15. This theme opens the development section and concludes with the pitches Db - A, Artôt's acronym. These pitches also appear several times in the counterpointing woodwind response (see mm. 292-5).

16. The initial solo flute theme outlines a diatonic form of Artôt's acronym (Ab Eb F) in m. 5. In all future occurrences in the movement, however, it is modified to Ab Eb Bb, as a possible attempt to "disguise" any reference to her name. The oboe/solo cello duet (mm. 50ff) is reminiscent of an adagio pas de deux, as found in many of his ballets.

17. Tchaikovsky continued to cultivate the principal of a "double" secondary theme complex (stemming from Romeo and Juliet) in most of his major works, including the last three symphonies. However, in the initial movement of the "Pathétique," his final work in that genre, the second idea is curiously missing in the recapitulation. In addition, the B minor tonic and parallel major ending strongly suggest ties back to Romeo.

18. This material is based on my paper "Tracing Mathilde's Ab Major," delivered at the Wagner conference "Lingering Dissonances" in Minneapolis, February 2002. Publication of the conference is pending by Cambridge University Press.

19. See Robert Gauldin, "Wagner's Parody Technique: 'Träume' and the Tristan Love Duet." Music Theory Spectrum 1 (1979), 35-42.

20. Important analytical studies of this opera include Alfred Lorenz, Das Geheimnis der Form bei Richard Wagner. Vol. 2: Der musikalische Aufbau von Richard Wagners 'Tristan und Isolde.' (Berlin, 1926); Robert Bailey, "The Genesis of 'Tristan und Isolde,' and a Study of Wagner's Sketches and Drafts for the First Act." (PhD disseration, Princeton University, 1969); and Roger North, Wagner's Most Subtle Art: An Analytical Study of 'Tristan und Isolde.' (London: Robert North [Book Factory], 1996).

21. These two passages may be found on pp. 128 (Act II) and 278 (Act III) of the Schirmer vocal score.

22. Thomas Grey, Wagner's Musical Prose: Texts and Contexts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 122.

23.This strophic aria and the music preceding it may be found on pp. 208-212 of the Schirmer vocal score.

24. This passage begins on p. 228 and eventually concludes at the bottom of 234 (in Ab) in the Schirmer vocal score.

25. Consult pp. 273-78 of the Schirmer vocal score.

26. See bottom of p. 276 to 277 in the Schirmer vocal score.

27. These occur at 2/2/291 (F major), 1/2/292 (Gb major), 3/1/293 (G major), and finally 4/4/293 (Ab major).

28. A condensed score of the Draft and additional commentary may be found in Robert Bailey's Richard Wagner: Prelude and Transfiguration from �Tristan and Isolde.' Norton Critical Score Series. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1985), 103-52.

29. Robert Gauldin, "Isolde's Transfiguration and Wagner's Second Thoughts," paper delivered at the International Symposium on 19th Century Music in Nottingham, England 1996.

30. See pp. 460-61 of the Dover edition full score of Tannhäuser.

31. See especially the passage associated with the "kiss" (p. 184 in the Schirmer vocal score), although the section abounds with "Tristan-chords," most of which are spelled as half-diminished sevenths on F (or if you will, an Ab minor triad with added sixth).

32. John Warrack, "The Sources and Genesis of the Text" in Richard Wagner: Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg. Cambridge Opera Handbooks. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 11.

33. See pages 218-26 in the Schirmer vocal score.

34. This scene commences on p. 433 of the Schirmer vocal score and proceeds to the Tristan quotation found on p. 452.

End of footnotes