1. Schumann's debut as a writer was an article extolling Chopin's Op. 2. Published in 1831 in the Leipzig Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, Schumann's impressionistic review begins with the line, "Hats off, gentlemen, a genius."

2. Hesse, Das Glasperlenspiel: Versuch einer Lebensbeschreibung des Magister Ludi Josef Knecht samt Knechts hinterlassenen Schriften (Zürich, Fretz & Wasmuth, 1943).

3. For early examples, see Dahlhaus, Between Romantic and Modern: 4 Studies in the Music of the Later Nineteenth Century, trans. Mary Whittall (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980 [1974]), The Idea of Absolute Music, trans. Roger Lustig (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989 [1978]), and Dahlhaus, ed., Beiträge zur musikalischen Hermeneutik (Regensburg: G. Bosse, 1975). Kerman's first programmatic statement on critical insight as key to the sensitive interpretation of music was delivered as a plenary address at the 1964 annual meeting of the AMS in Washington, D.C., and was published as "A Profile for American Musicology," Journal of the American Musicological Society 18 (1965), 61-69 (reprinted in Write All These Down: Essays on Music [Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994], 3-11).

4. With his dialectic between grammatical and psychological interpretation, Schleiermacher anticipates the important distinction between reconstructing the style and interpreting the work that is crucial to my own semiotic theory of musical meaning (Hatten, "Grounding Interpretation: A Semiotic Framework for Musical Hermeneutics," The American Journal of Semiotics 13/1-4 (1996 [1998]), 30). For an important account of Schleiermacher's methods and theoretical contributions, see Ian Bent, "General Introduction" to Music Analysis in the Nineteenth Century, vol. 2, Hermeneutic Approaches, ed. Ian Bent (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 2-4.

5. In my own work I have given similar interpretive weight to strategically marked events in Beethoven's late works--events that often serve as dramatic hinges, ranging from the "expressive crux" of a phrase to the chromatic reversal that cues abnegation as the crucial hinge in the dramatic trajectory of an "expressive genre." See Hatten, Musical Meaning in Beethoven: Markedness, Correlation, and Interpretation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994).

6. This is an extravagant synecdoche, to be sure, but one that exists physically: a fragment is all that is necessary to generate the whole, in the case of a hologram.

7. Hoeckner's "hermeneutics of the moment" also derives from Walter Benjamin's "paradoxical hermeneutics of hope: �Only for the sake of the hopeless have we been given hope'," (12) which in turn inspired Adorno in his philosophical approach to interpreting Beethoven, via "the image of the falling star flashing in the dark sky" (12).

8. See Kretzschmar, Gesammelte Aufsätze über Musik und Anderes, in Gesammelte Aufsätze aus den Jahrbüchern der Musikbibliothek Peters, vol. 2 (Leipzig: C. F. Peters, 1911).

9. In his monograph Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (Vienna: Universal Edition, 1912) Schenker frequently disparages Kretzschmar's interpretations and quasi-program-note commentaries from Führer durch den Konzertsaal (2nd ed; Leipzig: Breitkopf und Hartel, 1890).

10. It is a criticized aspect of Adorno's mode of argument. Carl Dahlhaus claimed "the verbal analogies perform the function of hiding a gap which the arguments could not close" (cited by Charles Rosen in "Should We Adore Adorno," The New York Review of Books, [October 24, 2002], note 6, as quoted by Max Paddison, "Immanent Critique or Musical Stocktaking," in Adorno: A Critical Reader, ed. Nigel Gibson and Andrew Ruben [Blackwell, 2002], 223.)

11. For example, the "gaze" of the boy "Echo," Leverkühn's illegitimate but innocent son, who dies as a result of his father's sin.

12. Adorno's manuscript notation of this event in his note to Mann is reproduced on the cover of Hoeckner's book.

13. This is an extreme form of the gesture Beethoven will use to set the devotional "ihr st�rzt nieder" in the finale of the Ninth Symphony, as the millions are enjoined to collapse in reverent awe before the Creator.

14. Liszt (along with Mahler) is assimilated into this study of exclusively German music without comment--as Liszt might well have approved, at least in this stage of his career. Mahler is represented by the intertextual moment in which the Adagissimo of the Ninth Symphony quotes the final phrase from the fourth song of the Kindertotenlieder.

15. Hoeckner cites three independent studies of Hepokoski's, on Strauss ["Fiery Pulsed Libertine or Domestic Hero? Strauss's Don Juan Reinvestigated," in Richard Strauss: New Perspectives on the Composer and His Work, ed. Bryan Gilliam (Durham: Duke University Press, 1992), 135-76], Verdi ["Genre and Content in Mid-Century Verdi: �Addio, del passato' (La traviata, act 3)," Cambridge Opera Journal 1 (1989), 249-76], and Sibelius [Sibelius: Symphony No. 5 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 4-9]. More recently Hepokoski has collaborated with Warren Darcy on a new "sonata theory" that addresses genre and form, and their deformations, in 18th- and very early 19th-century sonata forms.

16. The next section of Hoeckner's essay follows the history of the work's revisions.

17. One might note that a similar critical genre has already emerged in the essays of Lawrence Kramer and Susan McClary, to mention but two of the leading "new musicologists." But Hoeckner offers a satisfying range of historically and analytically pertinent evidence to support both his formal and his poetic interpretations of the Liszt tone poem. Hoeckner also concedes "the dilemma of an essayistic musicology, stranded in the no-man's-land between scholarship and criticism" (11)--and, I might add, between those endeavors and poetic criticism as an art form in its own right.

18. Hoeckner acknowledges this absence (and that of Mendelssohn, Bruckner, and Strauss), in that each "blurred the line between absolute and program music" (3). For an approach to the incorporation by Brahms of techniques associated with Liszt and Wagner, see A. Peter Brown, "Brahms's Third Symphony and the New German School," Journal of Musicology 2/4 (1983), 434-52.

19. However, as mentioned earlier, Adorno's note to Mann is featured as the cover illustration, where it functions (according to Hoeckner, personal communication), as "a moment in music that becomes the moment of German music."

20. Earlier in the essay Hoeckner had argued both for the B-natural and the Bb versions at the climax of Leonore's music. The operatic scream also figures heavily in Hoeckner's subsequent account of Elsa in Wagner's Lohengrin, with interesting results. He demonstrates two frames for the opera: Lohengrin's frame, representing the perspective of absolute aesthetics, gives priority to thematic reprise and tonal closure, and is marked by the Prelude and the Grail narration, whereas Elsa's more "progressive" frame is delineated by her two screams.

21. A version of this essay appeared as "Schumann and Romantic Distance," Journal of the American Musicological Society 50/1 (1997), 55-132. Hoeckner notes there that some of the material originated with his dissertation, "Music as a Metaphor for Metaphysics: Tropes of Transcendence in Nineteenth-Century Music from Schumann to Mahler," (Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1994).

22. Daverio, Nineteenth-Century Music and the German Romantic Ideology (New York: Schirmer, 1993).

23. Rosen, The Romantic Generation (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), Chapter 3.

24. Compare Daverio, Nineteenth Century Music, 19-47.

25. This critical mode of appreciation may indeed be more relevant to Schumann's non-operatic treatment of philosophical issues in his Scenen aus Goethe's Faust (1844-53).

26. For further consideration of questions 3-5, see Hatten, "Grounding Interpretation," 25-42.

27. And is this an inevitable consequence of Schleiermacher's hermeneutic principle, that somehow we can "understand the author better than he understood himself" (6)? Or is it the inevitable consequence of basing interpretation on previous studies and critical reception?

End of footnotes