Example 5. Haydn, Symphony No. 104, movement II, measures 1–37, melodic and structural analyses
Measures 1–2: The third descent in the first two bars is a third progression prolonging tonic; the melodic ascent from B5 to E6 should not be taken as a fourth progression because VI occurs only as a passing chord between I and V. Note the systematic but quirky increase in the size of intervals from minor 2nd, to minor 3rd, perfect 4th, 5th, major 6th, minor 7th—surely conscious on Haydn’s part.
Measures 9–16: Brief tonicizations of II and IV prolong V without displacing it; the emphases on C and E act indirectly as a seventh and a ninth above the dominant, without actually stating such a sonority.