Example 5. Haydn, Symphony No. 104, movement II, measures 1–37, melodic and structural analyses

Supplementary notes:

  • Measures 1–2: The third descent in the first two bars is a third progression prolonging tonic; the melodic ascent from B5 to E6 should not be taken as a fourth progression because VI occurs only as a passing chord between I and V. Note the systematic but quirky increase in the size of intervals from minor 2nd, to minor 3rd, perfect 4th, 5th, major 6th, minor 7th—surely conscious on Haydn’s part.
  • Measures 9–16: Brief tonicizations of II and IV prolong V without displacing it; the emphases on C and E act indirectly as a seventh and a ninth above the dominant, without actually stating such a sonority.