1. The regular MTO correspondent for Norway, Arvid Vollsnes, was unable to attend the entire conference.

2. Svensk Tidskrift för Musikforskning 52 (1970): 71-88. The entire paper is published in English.

3. "The Three-Part Ursatz," In Theory Only 10/1-2 (August 1987), 3-29. I'm grateful to Professor Don McLean of McGill University for providing me with the reference to Neumeyer's article as well as for showing me in a most convincing way how to incorporate the important foreground features within a more orthodox five-line sketch.

4. "Musical Form and Fundamental Structure: An Investigation of Schenker's Formenlehre," Music Analysis 15/2-3 (July-October 1996), 191-297.

5. Translated by Joel E. Cohen (Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1966).

6. Guldbrandsen gave a lecture similar to this one in Copenhagen in 1996. It is published as "New Light on Pierre Boulez and Postwar Modernism: On the Composition of Improvisation I-III sur Mallarmé," In the Plural: Institutions, Pluralism and Critical Self-Awareness in Contemporary Music [Papers from three seminars on contemporary music organized by the Department of Musicology, University of Copenhagen, as part of ISCM's World Music Days 1996], Søren Møller Sørensen, ed. (Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, 1997), 15-28. (Free copies can be ordered from the Department of Musicology, University of Copenhagen, bisgaard@coco.ihi.ku.dk.) The quotes above were taken from this publication. See also Guldbrandsen's dissertation Tradisjon og tradisjonsbrudd: En studie i Pierre Boulez: Pli selon pli--portrait de Mallarmé (Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1997).

7. See Maus's two articles "Music as Drama," Music Theory Spectrum 10 (1988), 56-73; and "Music as Narrative," Indiana Theory Review 12 (1991), 1-34.

8. Maus, 1991.

9. Emotion and Meaning in Music (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956).

10. "A Commonsense View of All Music": Reflections on Percy Graininger's Contribution to Ethnomusicology and Music Education (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 129.

11. See Simon Frith, Performing Rites: On the Value of Popular Music (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996).

12. Drawing from Hal Foster, The Return of the Real: The Avant-Garde at the End of the Century (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1996).

End of Footnotes