1. It is interesting to note here that "scientists" recently reported finding a portion of monkeys's brains that is enlarged in ways similar to an analogous enlarged portion of human brains. The enlargement in humans has long been attributed to language acquisition, a cognitive capability thought to distinguish humans from other species. Discovery of a similar enlargement would suggest that monkeys have a similar capability for language or that there is no discernible physical site that indicates language capability (New York Times, Tuesday, January 13, 1998: F3). If music is thought to be inaccessible to linguistic thought, then it must be a "less intelligent" or perhaps "primitive" form of human activity.

2. Stanley Cavell, Must We Mean What We Say? (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977 [1969]), 185-6.

3. Both Joseph Kerman and Leo Treitler refer to Cavell's observation in subsequent articles: see Kerman, "How We Got into Analysis, and How to Get Out," Critical Inquiry 7.2 (1980): 321, and Treitler, "'To Worship That Celestial Sound': Motives for Analysis," Journal of Musicology 1.2 (1982): 153, where he refers not only to Cavell but also to another philosopher/critic, Peter Kivy, who makes much the same observation in The Corded Shell (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980).

4. Thomas Benjamin, Michael Horvit, Robert Nelson. Techniques and Materials of Tonal Music: With an Introduction to Twentieth-century Techniques (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986). Stefan Kostka, Materials and Techniques of Twentieth-century Music (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990).

5. Ian Bent, Analysis (New York: Norton & Co., 1980): 5. [Parts of this book were published first as an article in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (London: The Macmillan Press).]

6. Bent, Analysis: 1.

7. Kerman, "How We Got Into Analysis," 314-5.

8. Treitler, "'To Worship That Celestial Sound'," 162.

9. Susan McClary, "Terminal Prestige: The Case of Avant-Garde Music," Keeping Score: Music, Disciplinarity, Culture, eds. David Schwarz, Anahid Kassabian, and Lawrence Siegel (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1997 [1989]): 62.

10. Martin Heidegger, "The Question Concerning Technology," The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, trans. William Lovitt (New York: Garland Publishing, 1977); Lewis Mumford, Technics and Civilization (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Co., 1936); Lynn White, Jr., Medieval Technology and Social Change (New York: Oxford University Press, 1962).

11. Don Ihde, Existential Technics (Albany: SUNY Press, 1983): 27.

12. Ihde, Existential Technics, 29. Heidegger delivered his ideas initially in lectures. The first lecture presenting his ideas was given in 1949 under the title "Das Gestell" [translated as "Enframing"]. Heidegger expanded the essay and delivered lectures in 1954 and 1955 under the title "The Question Concerning Technology." The essay was first published in 1954 in Vortraege und Aufsaetze (Pfullingen: Guenther Neske).

13. Ihde, Existential Technics, 32.

14. Ihde, Existential Technics, 32-33.

15. Heidegger, "The Question Concerning Technology," 21.

16. Ihde, Existential Technics, 43.

17. Ihde, Existential Technics, 42-3.

18. Douglas R. Hofstadter, "Semantics in C Major," New York Times Book Review, October 12, 1997: 28 [Reviewing Joseph Swain, Musical Languages (New York: Norton, 1997)].

19. Newsday, Wednesday, October 22, 1997: A7.

20. Don Ihde writes about "instrumental" experience in several places but notably in Technology and the Lifeworld: From Garden to Earth (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990). Ihde's work focuses on how our knowledge and experience of the world is mediated by various types of technologies, including instruments of various sorts: telescopes, musical instruments, tools, and so on. Ihde points out that unless there is a failure in its performance or use, the instrument will recede experientially--that is, we are not experientially aware of its presence; however, while it recedes from direct awareness, the instrument still has an affect on the nature of the experience.

21. Charles Taylor, "Engaged agency and background in Heidegger," The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger, ed. Charles B. Guignon (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993): 318

End of Footnotes