1. Gregory Butler, Bach's Clavierübung III: The Making of a Print (Durham and London: Duke University Press 1990).

2. Butler, 55.

3. The translations from Luther used throughout this essay are taken from F. Bente and W.H.T. Dau, Triglot Concordia: The Symbolic Books of the Ev. Lutheran Church (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House 1921). These texts are in the public domain via the internet at the following URL: http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/wittenberg-luther#lc

4. Luther concluded: "One God and one faith, but three persons, therefore also three articles or confessions." The trinitarian aspects of Clavierübung III (seen in the number of movements, the tripartite design of the fugue, its number of entries of the subject, and its signature of three flats) seem to mirror Luther's view that belief, and its expression in the Creed, is in essence symbolic of, and derivative from, the Trinity.

5. See Albert Riemenschneider, 371 Harmonized Chorales and 69 Chorale Melodies (New York/London: Schirmer 1941), no. 173. No J.S. Bach source survives for this chorale, though it appeared in C.P.E. Bach's edition of the chorales, vol. 2, published by Breitkopf in 1785.

6. See Carl von Winterfeld, Der Evangelische Kirkengesang III (Leipzig: 1847; reprint ed., Hildesheim: Olms 1966, 287, where the text is attributed to Christi Begraebniss). No texts were transmitted by C.P.E. Bach.

7. It would be difficult to maintain that Bach, even if Allein Gott could not have been further from his mind when he started work on the Fugue in C, did not at least become aware of the musical connotation as his work proceeded, especially as the material he used was almost identical to another piece where he provided a clear external link. The further evidence internal to the accompanying Prelude in C can only serve to strengthen this assumption.

8. See the Prelude and Fugue in E Major in Hedar, Josef, Dietrich Buxtehude, Saemtliche Orgelwerke, Band II (Copenhagen: Hansen 1952), 80.

9. Butler, 5.

10. Butler's study of certain similarities between the Hurlebusch and Bach compositions (including important historical facts providing evidence that Bach was acquainted with his music) is interesting and informative. However, Hurlebusch's piece, despite its alla breve notation, seems stylistically more akin with the E Major fugue of Buxtehude. The similarities extend beyond the subject (the second half of which is almost identical in both cases, though radically different in the Bach): although Hurlebusch at least surpassed Buxtehude in realizing the possibility of simple stretto (Buxtehude merely hinting at the possibility once in measures 31-2), the structure of his exposition is somewhat loose compared with Bach's. In Hurlebusch, not only does the second voice announce a statement of the theme again in the tonic (rather than the dominant), but the composer cannot withhold the temptation of using stretto as early as measure 7. Bach leaves it until measure 21 where the device marks off a structural point in the first section of his fugue. This contrast alone, while not negating the proposed link with Hurlebusch, does point to fundamental differences in the respective concepts of overall structure and scale. Further, Bach (unlike either Hurlebusch or Buxtehude) alters the pitch of note 4 in the answer; this idea was not influenced by either of the other composers, but stems from the salient importance of his countersubject (which I will demonstrate presently).

11. Nothing in this essay seeks to challenge Butler's findings with regard to the genesis of ClaverUebung III. It may, however, provide a possible reason as to why Bach changed his view of the work's overall design even after engraving had begun.

12. The chorale text may be translated as follows: "O fear of the heart, O anxiety and hesitation! Whose body do I see being carried? Whose tomb is this? What is the name of the rock? I should know it!" Luther made it clear in his teaching on the First Commandment that man should both love and fear God. He wrote in the Exposition of the Appendix to the First Commandment: "Learn, therefore, from these words how angry God is with those who trust in anything but Him, and again, how good and gracious He is to those who trust and believe in Him alone with the whole heart...He is a God who will not leave it unavenged if men turn from Him...even until they are utterly exterminated. Therefore He is to be feared, and not to be desisted."

13. This matches--interestingly--the final cadence of the chorale melody.

14. The countersubject is (despite appearances) not a regular one: its first statement is crucial to the unfolding of material, so much so that Bach is happy to alter the pitch of note 4 in the answer. This alteration also occurs in measure 10 when this countersubject (with one minor change of pitch) reappears.

15. This will be the first time when the cumulative structure of the whole fugue can be perceived: the old theme returning to combine with the new also happens in the third section. This will identify the original subject as, indeed, the overriding "main" theme. Its association with the words "O Herzens Angst" will therefore be an ever-recurring one throughout the piece.

16. This is because his idea for this section is to show the new subject both in its rectus and inversus forms. It was argued above that even where fughettas bear chorale designations in the title this does not compromise the music's primarily fugal design.

17. These notes, in Bach's own harmonization, are also echoed in the tenor voice. Following these three notes, the chorale contains only a single melodic passing note before reaching the Eb note of the final cadence; and this was the fragment which Bach chose at the outset to complete his original subject. It therefore returns along with the main theme's reappearance to round off the whole movement.

18. Butler, 39-43.

19. Butler, 4.

20. For a facsimile, see NBA vol. IV/4, xi.

End of Footnotes