MTO Dissertation Listings

Volume 4.2 1998


  1. Buehrer, Theodore E. "An Alternative Pedagogical Paradigm for Aural Skills: An Examination of Constructivist Learning Theory and its Potential for Implementation into Aural Skills Curricula"
  2. Igoudin, Lane. "Impact of MIDI on Electroacoustic Art Music"
  3. Wacker, Lori J. "Rhythmic and motivic procedures in selected late works of S.C. Eckhardt-Gramatte"

Buehrer, Theodore E.

TITLE: An Alternative Pedagogical Paradigm for Aural Skills:  An
  Examination of Constructivist Learning Theory and its
  Potential for Implementation into Aural Skills Curricula
INSTITUTION: Indiana University
BEGUN: December, 1997
COMPLETED: December, 1998
Throughout the twentieth-century, the delivery of academic
instruction in many, if not most, disciplines has followed a 
single epistemological model.  Various terms have been
used to describe this model--behaviorist, objectivist,
positivist--though each may be defined in essentially the
same way.  Simply put, the goal of instruction in this
traditional setting is to help the learner master the 
important facts, attributes, and relationships inherent in
a given knowledge domain.  The delivery of instruction in
the field of music theory, including the teaching of aural
skills, is no exception.

Recently, a new epistemological framework has surfaced 
which stands in stark constrast to the traditional model.
This alternative theory of how we come to know is called
constructivism, and although it is not in itself an
instructional design strategy, it has had significant
influence on the design of instruction in many fields and
on many levels, from primary school mathematics to 
medical school curricula.  

This study will examine three critical issues.  First, I 
will examine the fundamental tenets of constructivist
learning theory.  Second, once the theory has been laid
out, I will illustrate various forms of its implementation
through an examination of several instructional models 
based on its fundamental principles.  Third, I will 
demonstrate that, while the tenets which underlie
constructivism have had some impact on traditional aural 
skills teaching strategies at an intuitive level, in recent
years the influence of constructivism has become even more
overt.  I will attempt to synthesize these ideas and make
further suggestions and observations concerning how this
theory of learning may lead to an alternative methodology
for the teaching of aural skills.

  pedagogy, aural skills, constructivism, learning
  theory, music theory curriculum
Chapter 1:  Introduction; statement of intent

Chapter 2:  Constructivism:  an explanation and
review of relevant literature

Chapter 3:  The implementation of constructivist
principles:  an examination of three instructional

Chapter 4:  Constructivism in music theory
pedagogy:  a review of recent ideas

Chapter 5:  Toward a constructivist approach to
aural skills pedagogy:  a synthesis

Chapter 6:  Conclusions; suggestions for further study

Ted Buehrer
748 Ridge Crest Court
Bloomington, IN  47401

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Igoudin, Lane

TITLE: Impact of MIDI on Electroacoustic Art Music
INSTITUTION: Stanford University
BEGUN: 1/95

The revolution in the tools for music composition in the
mid-1980's caused a major change in electroacoustic music
composition itself.  MIDI-based music technology provided an
entirely new and comprehensive array of composition tools.  The
flood of MIDI-based hardware and software appearing within two
years after the introduction of the standard transformed the
concepts of the contemporary electronic music studio, the digital
instrument, and the role the computer plays in musical

The study is based on the results of the survey conducted by the
author in 1996.  Forty-five composers from 13 countries in
America (including both coasts of the U.S.  ), Asia, Australia
and Europe, active in the electroacoustic art music before and
after introduction of MIDI were interviewed in the course of the
study.  The collected interviews were sociologically analyzed.
The composers personal experiences were dissected along the lines
of the similar properties to be reconstituted in this study as an
objective collective experience.  The methods used for conducting
the study make it very likely to encounter the same trends
existing in the entire possible population.

The dissertation highlights the reception, adaptation, and
application of MIDI tools covering a multitude of topics and
subtopics related to electroacoustic music composition and
performance.  It also reconstructs the historical, technological
and aesthetic context in which MIDI appeared.  Inherent features
of the MIDI protocol and design of MIDI devices have had numerous
implications for compositional practice.  Composers assessment of
design of the MIDI protocol as well as design of MIDI-based
generation of equipment are given specific focus.

The text combines statistical data on a particular topic with
extensive excerpts from the interviews.  Preservation of art
music composers lore:  experiences, ideas, practices turned to be
one of the most important results of this project.

Contemporary, electroacoustic, computer, 20th century, technology, 
MIDI, style, social, sociological, composition

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Design of the Study
2.1 Guarding Objectivity
2.2 Available Sources
2.3 Data Collection
	2.3.1 Intention of the Study
	2.3.2 The Study Design
	2.3.3 The Survey Design
	2.3.4 Selection of the Survey Sample
	2.3.5 The Questionnaire
	2.3.6 The Interview Process
	2.3.7 Database Design and Data Classification
	2.3.8 Data Privacy Issues

Chapter 3 Historical, Technological, and Aesthetic Context of MIDI
3.1 Aesthetic Discourse Relevant to This Study
	3.1.1 Introductory Comments
	3.1.2 Composer / Performer / Audience Interaction	
	3.1.3 Tool / Composer Interaction in Music-Making Process
	3.1.4 Differences and Similarities Between Electroacoustic and Acoustic 
Genres of Art Music
3.2 Evolution of the Technology
	3.2.1 Mainframe Computers and Analog Synthesizers Analog Synthesizers Computers
	3.2.2 All-Digital Music Systems in 1970s-early 1980s	 
	3.2.3 Microcomputers
	3.2.4 Pre-MIDI State of Technology
3.3 Demands of Electroacoustic Art Music
3.4 Historical and Technological Context of Development of MIDI
	3.4.1 Development and Introduction of MIDI	
	3.4.2 MIDI Equipment in the Mid-Late 1980s Marketing of MIDI Yamaha DX Series of Synthesizers Spread of MIDI Equipment A New Paradigm of the Musical Instrument MIDI Protocol Extensions	

Chapter 4 Reception of MIDI in Art Music	
4.1 Incompatibility of Pre-MIDI Composition Tools	
4.2 Anticipation of MIDI	
4.3 Introduction to MIDI	
4.4 Reception of MIDI	
4.5 Evolution of the Evaluation of MIDI	
	4.5.1 Positive Evaluation	
	4.5.2 Change of Valence of Evaluation	
	4.5.3 Steady Negative Response	
4.6 Learning and Incorporating MIDI	
4.7 Use of MIDI in Composition	
4.8 Transfer of Pre-MIDI Compositional Methodology into MIDI Environments	
	4.8.1 Successful Transfer	
	4.8.2 Unsuccessful Transfer	

Chapter 5 Assessment of MIDI Technology from the Perspective of Composition	
5.1 MIDI Specification: Implications for Compositional Practice	
	5.1.1 Advantages	
	5.1.2 Limitations	
5.2 Design of MIDI Devices: Implications for Compositional Practice	
	5.2.1 The Positive Aspects of Design of MIDI Instruments 	
	5.2.2 The Negative Aspects of Design of MIDI Instruments 	
5.3 Social Benefits of MIDI Equipment	
	5.3.1 Affordability	
	5.3.2 Democratization	
	5.3.3 Concert Organization	
	5.3.4 Personal Computer Music Studio	
	5.3.5 Negative Social Effects	

Chapter 6 The Impact of MIDI on the Style and Methodology of 
Electroacoustic Art Music Composition
6.1 Changes in Musical Style
	6.1.1 Composition	
	6.1.2 The Role of Interaction in the Musical Process	 
	6.1.3 Sound Generation and Sound Control	
	6.1.4 Timbre 
	6.1.5 Rhythm	 
	6.1.6 Form	 
	6.1.7 Lack of Change	
6.2 Timbre and MIDI	 
	6.2.1 Development of Computer-Based Timbres before and with MIDI	
	6.2.2 MIDI-Controllable Timbres Use of MIDI Presets Synthesis Implementation New Concept  of the Synthesizer Ready-Made Sound Libraries Timbral Quality of Digital Sounds Cited Shortcomings of Presets Positive Response to the Quality of Preset Sounds
	6.2.3 Simulated Timbres in MIDI Presets	
	6.2.4 Role of Software Synthesis after Introduction of MIDI	
6.3 Live Interactive Electroacoustic Music and MIDI Tools	 
6.4 Role of Improvisation	
6.5 MIDI Notation Facilities	
6.6 Change of Compositional Interest

Chapter 7 Conclusions

Appendix A. List of Composers Interviewed in the Study	
Appendix B. The Statistics File	
Appendix C. Presentations of MIDI-Related Products in the Computer 
  Music Journal
Appendix D. Testimonies from Two Composers, Independent in Early 
  MIDI Years
Appendix E. Naumann and Wagoner's Sixteen Compositional Projects	 
Appendix F. Eight Cases of the Change of Compositional Interest	


Lane Igoudin
P.O.Box 410972
San Francisco, CA 94141-0972
(415) 331-9595 x 333

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Wacker, Lori J.

TITLE: Rhythmic and motivic procedures in selected late works of 
  S.C. Eckhardt-Gramatte
INSTITUTION: Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind.
BEGUN: April 1996
COMPLETED: May 1999 (projected)
Sophie-Carmen Eckhardt-Gramatte (1899-1974) was an 
accomplished composer, pianist, and violinist.  Though her 
compositions have been performed over the course of the
twentieth century, and some of the works have been 
published and recorded, her music as a whole has received
limited analytical attention.

The late-period works, written after her immigration to
Canada in 1953, use compositional procedures which are of
particular analytical interest.  Several of the chamber 
works from this period feature a device the composer called
a bar row.  Also described by Paul Creston as a metrical
sequence, a bar row consists of a fixed series of three or
four meter signatures repeated throughout a work.  Eckhardt-
Gramatte's works which incorporate bar rows were composed 
between 1955 and 1967. When considered chronologically, a 
certain compositional development can be traced in the works
as she became comfortable with this technique.

In this dissertation I will investigate how bar rows are used
in movements from six works.  Two works are examples of
Eckhardt-Gramatte's experimentation with bar rows in the 
1950s, three works show her complete integration and 
mastery of the procedure in the 1960s, and an additional work
from the 1960s combines bar rows with a twelve-tone theme.
In the later works, the bar rows provide a framework for a
rhythmically active surface.  Here concise motivic
construction and subsequent development occur, similar to
Schoenberg's technique of developing variation.  My analysis
will demonstrate how the framework of bar rows interacts
with motivic development, rhythmic grouping, phrase 
structure, and formal design.

I have three main goals for the dissertation:  one, to
introduce an analytical framework for understanding the
late works of this talented woman composer; two, to relate
the concept of bar rows to recent theories of rhythm,
meter, and serial composition; and three, to investigate
how the treatment of bar rows functions in relation to
other compositional procedures in Eckhardt-Gramatte's late
rhythm and meter, developing variation, women 
composers, Canadian composers

I.    Introduction, biography of S.C. 
        Eckhardt-Gramatte, and goals of the study
II.   Theoretical and compositional perspectives
        on bar rows (literature review)
III.  Experimentation with bar rows:  Concerto 
        for Orchestra, Duo Concertante
IV.   Consolidation and mastery of bar rows:
        Woodwind Quintet, String Quartet No. 3, Woodwind
        Trio No. 2
V.    Bar rows and a twelve-tone theme:  Nonet
VI.   Eckhardt-Gramatte's late works in perspective
        (summary of bar row functions)
Lori J. Wacker
907 W. 8th St.
Bloomington, IN 47404
phone (812) 334-1271

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