Buehrer, Theodore E.
TITLE: An Alternative Pedagogical Paradigm for Aural Skills: An Examination of Constructivist Learning Theory and its Potential for Implementation into Aural Skills Curricula INSTITUTION: Indiana University BEGUN: December, 1997 COMPLETED: December, 1998 ABSTRACT: Throughout the twentieth-century, the delivery of academic instruction in many, if not most, disciplines has followed a single epistemological model. Various terms have been used to describe this model--behaviorist, objectivist, positivist--though each may be defined in essentially the same way. Simply put, the goal of instruction in this traditional setting is to help the learner master the important facts, attributes, and relationships inherent in a given knowledge domain. The delivery of instruction in the field of music theory, including the teaching of aural skills, is no exception. Recently, a new epistemological framework has surfaced which stands in stark constrast to the traditional model. This alternative theory of how we come to know is called constructivism, and although it is not in itself an instructional design strategy, it has had significant influence on the design of instruction in many fields and on many levels, from primary school mathematics to medical school curricula. This study will examine three critical issues. First, I will examine the fundamental tenets of constructivist learning theory. Second, once the theory has been laid out, I will illustrate various forms of its implementation through an examination of several instructional models based on its fundamental principles. Third, I will demonstrate that, while the tenets which underlie constructivism have had some impact on traditional aural skills teaching strategies at an intuitive level, in recent years the influence of constructivism has become even more overt. I will attempt to synthesize these ideas and make further suggestions and observations concerning how this theory of learning may lead to an alternative methodology for the teaching of aural skills. KEYWORDS: pedagogy, aural skills, constructivism, learning theory, music theory curriculum TOC: Chapter 1: Introduction; statement of intent Chapter 2: Constructivism: an explanation and review of relevant literature Chapter 3: The implementation of constructivist principles: an examination of three instructional models Chapter 4: Constructivism in music theory pedagogy: a review of recent ideas Chapter 5: Toward a constructivist approach to aural skills pedagogy: a synthesis Chapter 6: Conclusions; suggestions for further study CONTACT: Ted Buehrer 748 Ridge Crest Court Bloomington, IN 47401 (812)334-8409 firstname.lastname@example.org
Back to Dissertation Menu
TITLE: Impact of MIDI on Electroacoustic Art Music INSTITUTION: Stanford University BEGUN: 1/95 COMPLETED: 6/97 ABSTRACT: The revolution in the tools for music composition in the mid-1980's caused a major change in electroacoustic music composition itself. MIDI-based music technology provided an entirely new and comprehensive array of composition tools. The flood of MIDI-based hardware and software appearing within two years after the introduction of the standard transformed the concepts of the contemporary electronic music studio, the digital instrument, and the role the computer plays in musical composition. The study is based on the results of the survey conducted by the author in 1996. Forty-five composers from 13 countries in America (including both coasts of the U.S. ), Asia, Australia and Europe, active in the electroacoustic art music before and after introduction of MIDI were interviewed in the course of the study. The collected interviews were sociologically analyzed. The composers personal experiences were dissected along the lines of the similar properties to be reconstituted in this study as an objective collective experience. The methods used for conducting the study make it very likely to encounter the same trends existing in the entire possible population. The dissertation highlights the reception, adaptation, and application of MIDI tools covering a multitude of topics and subtopics related to electroacoustic music composition and performance. It also reconstructs the historical, technological and aesthetic context in which MIDI appeared. Inherent features of the MIDI protocol and design of MIDI devices have had numerous implications for compositional practice. Composers assessment of design of the MIDI protocol as well as design of MIDI-based generation of equipment are given specific focus. The text combines statistical data on a particular topic with extensive excerpts from the interviews. Preservation of art music composers lore: experiences, ideas, practices turned to be one of the most important results of this project. KEYWORDS: Contemporary, electroacoustic, computer, 20th century, technology, MIDI, style, social, sociological, composition TOC: Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Design of the Study 2.1 Guarding Objectivity 2.2 Available Sources 2.3 Data Collection 2.3.1 Intention of the Study 2.3.2 The Study Design 2.3.3 The Survey Design 2.3.4 Selection of the Survey Sample 2.3.5 The Questionnaire 2.3.6 The Interview Process 2.3.7 Database Design and Data Classification 2.3.8 Data Privacy Issues Chapter 3 Historical, Technological, and Aesthetic Context of MIDI 3.1 Aesthetic Discourse Relevant to This Study 3.1.1 Introductory Comments 3.1.2 Composer / Performer / Audience Interaction 3.1.3 Tool / Composer Interaction in Music-Making Process 3.1.4 Differences and Similarities Between Electroacoustic and Acoustic Genres of Art Music 3.2 Evolution of the Technology 3.2.1 Mainframe Computers and Analog Synthesizers 126.96.36.199 Analog Synthesizers 188.8.131.52 Computers 3.2.2 All-Digital Music Systems in 1970s-early 1980s 3.2.3 Microcomputers 3.2.4 Pre-MIDI State of Technology 3.3 Demands of Electroacoustic Art Music 3.4 Historical and Technological Context of Development of MIDI 3.4.1 Development and Introduction of MIDI 3.4.2 MIDI Equipment in the Mid-Late 1980s 184.108.40.206 Marketing of MIDI 220.127.116.11 Yamaha DX Series of Synthesizers 18.104.22.168 Spread of MIDI Equipment 22.214.171.124 A New Paradigm of the Musical Instrument 126.96.36.199 MIDI Protocol Extensions Chapter 4 Reception of MIDI in Art Music 4.1 Incompatibility of Pre-MIDI Composition Tools 4.2 Anticipation of MIDI 4.3 Introduction to MIDI 4.4 Reception of MIDI 4.5 Evolution of the Evaluation of MIDI 4.5.1 Positive Evaluation 4.5.2 Change of Valence of Evaluation 4.5.3 Steady Negative Response 4.6 Learning and Incorporating MIDI 4.7 Use of MIDI in Composition 4.8 Transfer of Pre-MIDI Compositional Methodology into MIDI Environments 4.8.1 Successful Transfer 4.8.2 Unsuccessful Transfer Chapter 5 Assessment of MIDI Technology from the Perspective of Composition 5.1 MIDI Specification: Implications for Compositional Practice 5.1.1 Advantages 5.1.2 Limitations 5.2 Design of MIDI Devices: Implications for Compositional Practice 5.2.1 The Positive Aspects of Design of MIDI Instruments 5.2.2 The Negative Aspects of Design of MIDI Instruments 5.3 Social Benefits of MIDI Equipment 5.3.1 Affordability 5.3.2 Democratization 5.3.3 Concert Organization 5.3.4 Personal Computer Music Studio 5.3.5 Negative Social Effects Chapter 6 The Impact of MIDI on the Style and Methodology of Electroacoustic Art Music Composition 6.1 Changes in Musical Style 6.1.1 Composition 6.1.2 The Role of Interaction in the Musical Process 6.1.3 Sound Generation and Sound Control 6.1.4 Timbre 6.1.5 Rhythm 6.1.6 Form 6.1.7 Lack of Change 6.2 Timbre and MIDI 6.2.1 Development of Computer-Based Timbres before and with MIDI 6.2.2 MIDI-Controllable Timbres 188.8.131.52 Use of MIDI Presets 184.108.40.206 Synthesis Implementation 220.127.116.11 New Concept of the Synthesizer 18.104.22.168 Ready-Made Sound Libraries 22.214.171.124 Timbral Quality of Digital Sounds 126.96.36.199 Cited Shortcomings of Presets 188.8.131.52 Positive Response to the Quality of Preset Sounds 6.2.3 Simulated Timbres in MIDI Presets 6.2.4 Role of Software Synthesis after Introduction of MIDI 6.3 Live Interactive Electroacoustic Music and MIDI Tools 6.4 Role of Improvisation 6.5 MIDI Notation Facilities 6.6 Change of Compositional Interest Chapter 7 Conclusions Appendix A. List of Composers Interviewed in the Study Appendix B. The Statistics File Appendix C. Presentations of MIDI-Related Products in the Computer Music Journal Appendix D. Testimonies from Two Composers, Independent in Early MIDI Years Appendix E. Naumann and Wagoner's Sixteen Compositional Projects Appendix F. Eight Cases of the Change of Compositional Interest Bibliography CONTACT: Lane Igoudin P.O.Box 410972 San Francisco, CA 94141-0972 (415) 331-9595 x 333 email@example.com
Back to Dissertation Menu
TITLE: Rhythmic and motivic procedures in selected late works of S.C. Eckhardt-Gramatte INSTITUTION: Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. BEGUN: April 1996 COMPLETED: May 1999 (projected) ABSTRACT: Sophie-Carmen Eckhardt-Gramatte (1899-1974) was an accomplished composer, pianist, and violinist. Though her compositions have been performed over the course of the twentieth century, and some of the works have been published and recorded, her music as a whole has received limited analytical attention. The late-period works, written after her immigration to Canada in 1953, use compositional procedures which are of particular analytical interest. Several of the chamber works from this period feature a device the composer called a bar row. Also described by Paul Creston as a metrical sequence, a bar row consists of a fixed series of three or four meter signatures repeated throughout a work. Eckhardt- Gramatte's works which incorporate bar rows were composed between 1955 and 1967. When considered chronologically, a certain compositional development can be traced in the works as she became comfortable with this technique. In this dissertation I will investigate how bar rows are used in movements from six works. Two works are examples of Eckhardt-Gramatte's experimentation with bar rows in the 1950s, three works show her complete integration and mastery of the procedure in the 1960s, and an additional work from the 1960s combines bar rows with a twelve-tone theme. In the later works, the bar rows provide a framework for a rhythmically active surface. Here concise motivic construction and subsequent development occur, similar to Schoenberg's technique of developing variation. My analysis will demonstrate how the framework of bar rows interacts with motivic development, rhythmic grouping, phrase structure, and formal design. I have three main goals for the dissertation: one, to introduce an analytical framework for understanding the late works of this talented woman composer; two, to relate the concept of bar rows to recent theories of rhythm, meter, and serial composition; and three, to investigate how the treatment of bar rows functions in relation to other compositional procedures in Eckhardt-Gramatte's late works. KEYWORDS: rhythm and meter, developing variation, women composers, Canadian composers TOC: I. Introduction, biography of S.C. Eckhardt-Gramatte, and goals of the study II. Theoretical and compositional perspectives on bar rows (literature review) III. Experimentation with bar rows: Concerto for Orchestra, Duo Concertante IV. Consolidation and mastery of bar rows: Woodwind Quintet, String Quartet No. 3, Woodwind Trio No. 2 V. Bar rows and a twelve-tone theme: Nonet VI. Eckhardt-Gramatte's late works in perspective (summary of bar row functions) CONTACT: Lori J. Wacker 907 W. 8th St. Bloomington, IN 47404 phone (812) 334-1271 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Back to Dissertation Menu
 Music Theory Online (MTO) as a whole is Copyright � 1998, all rights reserved, by the Society for Music Theory, which is the owner of the journal. Copyrights for individual items published in MTO are held by their authors. Items appearing in MTO may be saved and stored in electronic or paper form, and may be shared among individuals for purposes of scholarly research or discussion, but may not be republished in any form, electronic or print, without prior, written permission from the author(s), and advance notification of the editors of MTO.
 Any redistributed form of items published in MTO must include the following information in a form appropriate to the medium in which the items are to appear:
This item appeared in Music Theory Online Libraries may archive issues of MTO in electronic or paper form for public access so long as each issue is stored in its entirety, and no access fee is charged. Exceptions to these requirements must be approved in writing by the editors of MTO, who will act in accordance with the decisions of the Society for Music Theory.
in [VOLUME #, ISSUE #] on [DAY/MONTH/YEAR].
It was authored by [FULL NAME, EMAIL ADDRESS],
with whose written permission it is reprinted here.