Dissertation Index

Author: Dudeque, Norton E.

Title: Tonal Harmony and the Concept of Monotonality in the Writings of Arnold Schoenberg

Institution: Universidade de Sao Paulo

Begun: January 1994

Completed: June 1997


This dissertation is a study on the main theoretical thoughts on tonal harmony found in the published writings of Arnold Schoenberg. Central to his concerns on the subject is the concept of monotonality which permeates a great part of his tonal principles. The dissertation is divided in six chapters. The first addresses the foundations of the tonal system derived from the overtone series. The elements which contribute for a definite tonal expression is the subject of the second chapter, these are summarized by root progressions, characteristic pitches, and the origin of the substitute tones. The concept of monotonality is accomplished through the concepts of substitution, neutralization, and tonal regions, these are the topics of the third chapter. Tonal function is the subject of study in the fourth chapter. In schoenbergian theory tonal function is discussed in two levels: a general and a specific. The enlargement of tonal relationships is achieved by the concepts of transference of function, transformation of chords, and by a special category of chords which present an indefinite function: the vagrant chords, they represent the best example of multiple function which is of great importance in developing an enlargement of tonal relationships. The latter subject is discussed in the fifth chapter which addresses the Extended Tonality. The notion of an extended tonality begins with the concept of the emancipation of the dissonances. This starting point is further developed into the notions of an extended tonality which comprises the concepts of suspended tonality and floating tonality, both are complementary. The inclusion of non-tonal elements in a tonal context is considered the last level of development in extended tonality. These topics are illustrated in short analytical examples from works by Schoenberg, Webern, and Berg. In the last chapter the analyses of two songs by Schoenberg, "Erwartung", Op. 2, no 1, and "Traumleben", Op. 6, no 1, illustrate most of the topics discussed in the dissertation. The dissertation also aims to show the origin of some of the concepts and notions present in schoenbergian theory. These are treated in a secondary level of information and addresses subjects such as: root progressions in schoenbergian theory and in Simon Sechter's theory; and tonal regions, the Chart of Regions and its relation to Riemann's function theory.

Keywords: Theory, tonal harmony, schoenbergian theory, monotonality, extended tonality, analysis


Introduction: Arnold Schoenberg's Corpus Teoricus, Historical
Context. Chapter I: The Tonal System in Schoenberg's Theory. 1.1: The
Origin of the Tonal System for Schoenberg, 1.2: The Concept of Tonality,
1.3: The Development of the Tonal System. Chapter II: The Expression of a
Tonality. 2.1: Root Progressions, 2.2: Characteristic Pitches and the
Establishment of a Tonality, 2.3: Minor Tonality and its Characteristic
Pitches, 2.4: The Church Modes. Chapter III: Monotonality. 3.1:
Substitution, 3.2: Introduction of Substitutes "Quasi-diatonic" and
Chromatic, Neutralization and False Relation, 3.3: Regions in Major and
Minor, 3.4: Classification of Regions, 3.5: The Principle of
Monotonality. Chapter IV: Tonal Function, 4.1: Tonal Function: General
Concepts, 4.2: Tonal Function for Schoenberg, 4.3: Specific Functions:
4.3.1: Pitch Functions, 4.3.2: Root Functions, 4.4: Transference of
Function by Imitation, 4.5: Chord Transformation, 4.6: Vagrant Chords and
Multiple Meaning. Chapter V: The Expansion of Tonality. 5.1: The
Emancipation of the Dissonances and "Non-harmonic Tones", 5.2: Extended
Tonality, 5.3: The Last Elements in the Expansion of Tonality, 5.4:
Analytical Exemplification of Extended Tonality. Chapter VI: Analyses.
6.1: Analysis of "Erwartung" Op. 2, no 1, 6.2: Analysis of "Traumleben"
Op. 6, no 1. Conclusions.



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