Dissertation Index

Author: Zamzow, Beth Ann

Title: The Influence of the Liturgy on the Fifteenth-Century English Carols

Institution: The University of Iowa

Begun: June 1998

Completed: May 2000


The poetry of the fifteenth-century English carols is permeated with quotations and paraphrases from the liturgy of the Use of Salisbury. The high level of erudition of the text authors is evident in the sensitive conflation of liturgical quotations and scriptural allusions and in the sophisticated constructions of the carol poetry.

Music of the liturgy is incorporated into carols containing quotations of liturgical texts in about 35 percent of the repertory. The extent of a direct quotation ranges from an entire chant to selected phrases. Paraphrase by amplification involves ornamental insertions between quoted pitches; in contrast, paraphrase by reduction uses selected pitches to preserve the contour of the chant within the melodic and polyphonic fabric of the carol. Reflections of mode and other structural similarities represent a broad type of liturgical paraphrase and, in some cases, prove to be the most intellectually stimulating.

The dissertation is organized as follows: The introduction is an extensive analytical overview of the carol repertory at large. Part One is an apparatus through which as many liturgical, patristic and scriptural allusions as possible are identified and linked to a specific carol text; the texts are reproduced on the page preceding each apparatus. Presenting the texts in this format illustrates to the reader the high degree to which the carols are saturated with these allusions. Following the text apparatus are musical examples illustrating the plainchant quotations, paraphrases and other similarities in the music of 45 carols. Part Two is a set of essays designed to define the techniques and delineate the multifaceted issues of the quotation and paraphrase techniques. Each language combination is addressed as well as topics such as metrical and non-metrical liturgical source texts, the commonality of subject matter, and the levels of saturation. The appendices contain liturgical source texts, an alphabetical list of liturgical quotations in the carol poetry, and fresh translations of the Latin carols.

Keywords: Sarum, Salisbury, mass, office, Latin, macaronic, English, quotation, paraphrase, hymn


An Overview of the Repertory
The Four Principal Carol Manuscript Sources
The Musical Style of the 15th-Century Carol
The Assignment of Mode in the Carol Music
Counterpoint in the Carols
Cadence Structures and Ornaments
The Liturgy and the Church Year
Foundations for Liturgical Texts
The Use of Salisbury
Review of the Scholarship

CHAPTER I. Carol Texts Ordered According to their Liturgical Associations
Christmastide Saints
Epiphany Carols
Carols Related to the Virgin Mary
Other Liturgies
Secular Topics

CHAPTER II. Musical Examples of Quotation and Paraphrase

CHAPTER III. Quotation of Text
The Latin Carols
Liturgical Quotation in the Latin Carols
The Macaronic Carols
Liturgical Quotation in the Macaronic Carols

CHAPTER IV. Paraphrase of Text
Latin Liturgical Paraphrase in the Latin Carols
Paraphrased Latin Lines in the Macaronic Carols

CHAPTER V. Translation of Text
The Extent of the English Poetry in the Macaronic Carols
Translation of Liturgical Materials in the Macaronic Carols

CHAPTER VI. Quotation and Paraphrase of Music
Range of Possibilities
Direct Quotations
Paraphrase by Amplification
Paraphrase by Reduction
Reflections of Mode, Contour and Cadence and Other Similarities


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