Dissertation Index

Author: Steven D. Mathews

Title: Getting to the Crux: The Inner/Outer-Form Dynamic and the Type 2 Sonata in Select Symphonic Movements by Mozart, Haydn, and J. C. Bach

Institution: University of Cincinnati

Begun: January 2014

Completed: March 2021


This dissertation explores a specific type of musical form from the mid-eighteenth century: sonata forms without double-return recapitulations. James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy (2006) refer to these kinds of forms as Type 2 sonatas. This dissertation applies a dual method of analysis to select Type 2 sonatas by Mozart, Haydn, and J. C. Bach: one method that focuses on the outer form (Sonata Theory) and another that focuses on the inner form (Schenkerian analysis). This plural approach to musical form analysis provides a way to disclose perceived tensions within an inner/outer-form dynamic.

Part I contains two chapters. In the first chapter, I present a general review of Sonata Theory (outer form) and Schenkerian theory (inner form) as parameters for musical form analysis. The second chapter discusses the specific concepts related to the Type 2 sonata (development and crux). 

Part II of this dissertation contains three analytical chapters that focus on sixteen Type 2 symphonic movements from the mid-eighteenth century (ca. 1760s). Chapter 3 considers the early Type 2 symphonic movements written by Mozart from an inner-form perspective. Chapter 4 considers a different issue concerning the development section in slow symphonic Type 2 movements by Haydn: the early double return (i.e., when the P-theme in tonic occurs near the beginning of the development section). Chapter 5 presents analyses of the Type 2 slow movements in J. C. Bach’s Symphonies (Op. 3) and proposes the concepts of harmonic crux and linking dominant as integral parts of the inner-form analysis. 

Keywords: Sonata Theory, Type 2 Sonatas, Schenkerian Analysis, Mozart, Haydn, J. C. Bach


Part I: Theoretical Considerations
Chapter 1: The Dynamics of Inner and Outer Form
Chapter 2: Hepokoski and Darcy's Type 2 Sonata
Part II: Analysis
Chapter 3: A Study of the Inner Forms of Mozart's Early Symphonic Type 2 Sonatas
Chapter 4: Complementary Dynamics: Haydn's Early Symphonies and the Type 2 Sonata
Chapter 5: The Harmonic Crux in the Type 2 Slow Movements from J. C. Bach's Symphonies (Op. 3)


Steven D. Mathews
Reading, PA

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